ICPS agenda has a priority to make India green and clean and also as environment is a global concern right now so we want that people in India get educated about the environment problems around the world. We encourage people to do tree plantation in their respective areas in different states of India. Moreover tree plantation is the cheapest and simple way to make our environment clean and greener. Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like are cultivated, usually by resident laborers. A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. The term is currently most often used for plantings of trees and shrubs. The term tends also to be used for plantings maintained on economic bases other than that of subsistence farming.
The importance of trees in purifying the air, as natural resources, maintaining the ecological balance, preventing soil erosion, as medicines, habitats for faunal species, providing nutrients to the soil etc. is well known. The present forest and tree cover in the country according to the State of Forest Report 2001 of the Forest Survey of India is 23.03 per cent. According to the National Forest Policy, the country is required to achieve a forest cover target of 25 per cent by 2007 and 33 per cent cover by 2012. Again, against the National Forest Policy requirement of 33 per cent forest cover in every State, Delhi’s figure is 10.2 per cent. The involvement of people – particularly at the grassroots level – and agencies outside the Government is crucial for achieving these targets. Development Alternatives through its CLEAN-India program has long been involved in plantation activities across the country.
The Delhi Unit of CLEAN-India Program organized a Tree plantation drive in Delhi in August-October 2004. The drive was conducted in collaboration with the Dept. of Environment, Government of NCT Delhi and agencies like the Forest Depts., NDMC, MCD & CPWD. About 300 students from CLEAN-Delhi partner schools participated in the drive that saw the plantation of over 1500 trees in various localities of Delhi.
Crops may be called plantation crops because of their association with a specific type of farming economy. Most of these involve a large landowner, raising crops with economic value rather than for subsistence, with a number of employees carrying out the work. Often it referred to crops newly introduced to a region. In past times it has been associated with slavery, indentured labour, and other economic models of high inequity. However, arable and dairy farming are both usually (but not always) excluded from such definitions. A comparable economic structure in antiquity was the latifundia that produced commercial quantities of olive oil or wine, for export.
Probably the single most important factor a plantation has on the local environment is the site where the plantation is established. If natural forest is cleared for a planted forest then a reduction in biodiversity and loss of habitat will likely result. In some cases, their establishment may involve draining wetlands to replace mixed hardwoods that formerly predominated, with pine species.If a plantation is established on abandoned agricultural land, or highly degraded land, it can result in an increase in both habitat and biodiversity. A planted forest can be profitably established on lands that will not support agriculture or suffer from lack of natural regeneration.The tree species used in a plantation is also an important factor. Where non-native varieties or species are grown, few of the native fauna are adapted to exploit these and further biodiversity loss occurs. However, even non-native tree species may serve as corridors for wildlife and act as a buffer for native forest, reducing edge effect.
Once a plantation is established, how it is managed becomes the important environmental factor. The single most important factor of management is the rotation period. Plantations harvested on longer rotation periods (30 years or more) can provide similar benefits to a naturally regenerated forest managed for wood production, on a similar rotation. This is especially true if native species are used. In the case of exotic species, the habitat can be improved significantly if the impact is mitigated by measures such as leaving blocks of native species in the plantation, or retaining corridors of natural forest. In Brazil, similar measures are required by government regulations.
Thus, mere planting of trees will not help. Proper care has to be taken of the saplings planted. Following points should be noted while doing tree plantations, anywhere in the country.-
1. As far as possible, native trees should be planted. Trees like Eucalyptus, Australian Acacia, Lantana, Lucena, Mast tree (False Ashoka) should be avoided.
2. Tree guards should be provided for roadside plantations.
3. Saplings should be watered regularly during times of a dry spell.
4. Well-drained deep sandy loams are best suited for plant growth.
5. Soil or plantation area should be free of construction waste, debris etc.
6. Compost manure should be applied during plantation and during the initial growth phase of the plants. Fertilizers should not be added.
7.Schools and colleges should adopt “one child one plant” scheme, where the responsibility of growing the plant lies with the student. This will be a learning experience for the student as well.