The changes in the social and economic structure of India have intensified the need for universal early childhood education. The formidable challenges before the Indian Government are: to provide high quality early childhood education programs; to preserve indigenous practices such as multilinguality, family/community involvement, participation of older children as caretakers of their younger siblings; and to provide early childhood education to all children despite serious financial constraints. This article presents a brief overview of the traditional childrearing practices in India, chronicles government initiatives in early childhood education, describes the range of programs available in India, and identifies goals that will shape the future of early childhood programs in India.
Early childhood education or learning focus on children learning through play.
There are different developmental domains of children which all relate to each other:
- Physical development – Concerning the physical growth and the development of both gross(eg. walking) and fine motor(e.g. finger movement) control of the body.
- Perception and sensory development – How a child functions using the senses and the ability to process the information gained.
- Communication and language development – Using visual and sound stimuli, especially in the acquisition of language, also in the exchange of thoughts and feelings.
- Cognitive development – Concerning how the individual thinks and react.
- Emotional Development – Concerning children’s increasing awareness and control of their feelings and how does he react to these feelings in a given situation.
- Social Development – Concerning the child’s identity, their relationship with others, and understanding their place within a social environment.
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