DISTRICT COMMITTEE ROHTAK HARYANA 2012

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HISTORY OF HARYANA

 
“State of Haryana” redirects here.
For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana.
Haryana
—  State  —

Seal

Location of Haryana in India

Map of Haryana

Coordinates (Chandigarh9352975898): 30.73°N 76.78°ECoordinates30.73°N 76.78°E
Country  India
Established 1 November 1966
Capital Chandigarh
Largest city Faridabad
Districts 21
Government
 • Governor Jagannath Pahadia
 • Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda (INC)
 • Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 10
 • High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court
Area
 • Total 44,212 km2(17,070 sq mi)
Area rank 20th
Population (2011)
 • Total 25,353,081
 • Rank 16th
 • Density 570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-HR
HDI increase 0.644 (medium)
HDI rank 11th (2005)
Literacy 76.64%
Sex Ratio 877
Child Sex Ratio (0-6 yrs) 830
Official language Hindi
Website haryana.gov.in

Haryana /ˌhɑriˈɑːnə/ is a state in India. Constituted in 1966, it is one of two newly created states carved out of the greater Punjab province as a means of creating a stronger national identity. It has been a part of the Kuru region in North India.[1][2][3] The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writerVibudh Shridhar (VS 1189-1230).[4] It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region. The capital of the state is Chandigarh which is administered as a union territory and is also the capital of Punjab.

Sites in Haryana were part of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India’s 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country’s production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated bysubmersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to theGreen Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.

Haryana is one of the wealthiest states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at Rs. 67,891,[5] including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India.[6] Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since 1970s.[7] Haryana is India’s largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors.[8] Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.[9] The city of Gurgaon has rapidly emerged as a major hub for theinformation technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India’s largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero MotoCorp Limited, the world’s largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Yamuna NagarPanipatPanchkula andFaridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel, plywood, paper and textile industries in the state.

Contents

[hide]

[edit]History

[edit]Ancient period

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra

Haryana was the outermost location of the ancient Indus Valley Civilizationwith centers such as Banawali and Rakhigarhi. The most extensive center, Rakhigarhi, is now a village in Hisar District. The site is dated to be over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered.

Also the Vedic Civilization flourished on the banks of the now lost Sarasvati River. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic Battle of Kurukshetra described in the Mahabharata (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna) and the three battles of Panipat.

[edit]Etymology

The name “Haryana” could mean “the Abode of God”, derived from theSanskrit words Hari (the Hindu God Vishnu) and ayana (home).[10]

Scholars like Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name Haryana comes from the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, “green”) and Aranya (forest).[11]

The Yashastilaka-Champu of Somadeva mentions “Harivansha” as the ruling family of this region.[12] JN Singh Yadav, Pran Nath Chopra and some anthropologists believe that the name Haryana may have derived from Abhiars, its ancient inhabitants (Abhirayana -> Ahirayana -> Hirayana -> Haryana).[11][12][13]

[edit]Medieval period

See also: Harsha

King Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas continued to rule over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha‘s adopted capital of Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more central than Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to ‘Hariana’ occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.

The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat in Haryana. The first battle took place in 1526, whereBabur, the ruler of Kabul, defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. In the second battle of Panipat (5 November 1556), Akbar‘s forces defeated, the local Haryanvi warrior Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya popularly called Hemu, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and who had earlier won 22 battles, from Punjab to Bengal including two against Akbar’s forces during 1553-1556 before acceeding to Delhi throne and establishing ‘Hindu Raj’ in North India on 7 October 1556. The decline of the Mughal Empire in early 18th century, led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire, including Haryana. In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi, following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protector of the Mughal throne at Delhi.[14] Baji Rao’s son, Balaji Baji Rao (popularly known as Nana Saheb), further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab and Peshawar in 1758. This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali, who was based in Kabul. After the Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali, Marathas lost Punjab, Delhi and Haryana to Ahmad Shah Durrani. Within 10 years, Mahadji Shinde re-established Maratha rule over North India, Haryana region remained under the rule of the Scindhia clan of the Maratha Empire, until in 1803, the British East India Company took control of Gurgaon through the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon after the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

[edit]British period

Before the Independence of India, Haryana was part of the British Punjab Province.

During the Indian rebellion of 1857, several leaders from this region, including Rao Tula Ram, participated actively. People of the most important fights were at SonipatBhiwaniRohtak. Later, leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram played an important role in the politics of the Punjab province.

[edit]Formation of Haryana

Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966, on the recommendation of the Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people. The commission gave its report on 31 May 1966. According to this report the then districts of HissarMahendragarhGurgaonRohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur), NaraingarhAmbala and Jagadhri were also to be included.

The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should be a part of Haryana.[15] However, the city ofChandigarh was denied to Haryana, and Chandigarh and a Punjabi-speaking area of Rupnagar district were made a Union Territoryserving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.

Pt.Bhagwat Dayal Sharma, MLA from Yamuna Nagar became first Chief Minister of Haryana.

[edit]Geography

Yamuna River near the Haryana Border

Vultures in Haryana’s green farms

Blackbuck male and female

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is located between 27°39′ to 30°35′ N latitude and between 74°28′ and 77°36′ E longitude. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.

[edit]Rivers of Haryana

The river Yamuna flows along its eastern boundary. The ancient Sarasvati River is said to have flowed from Yamuna Nagar, but it has now disappeared.

The river Ghaggar is Haryana’s main seasonal river. The Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters Haryana near Pinjore, Panchkula district. Passing through Ambala and Hissar, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs a course of 290 miles before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan.

The Markanda river’s ancient name was Aruna. A seasonal stream like the Ghaggar, it originates from the lower Sivalik Hills and enters Haryana near Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasvati.

An important tributary is the Tangri. The Sahibi originates in the Mewat hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. On reaching Rohtak it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into the Yamuna. There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills – Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south.[16]

[edit]Climate

The climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season (July–September) and sometimes causes local flooding.[16]

[edit]Flora and fauna

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills.Mulberryeucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black bucknilgaipantherfoxmongoosejackal and wild dog. More than 300 species of birds are found here.

[edit]Demographics

Religion in Haryana
Religion     Percent  
Hinduism   89.7%
Sikhism   6.2%
Islam   4%
Others   0.10%
Distribution of religions

Hindus are majority in Haryana and are about 90% of the population, Sikhs 6.2%,Muslims 4.05% (mainly Meos) and Christians 0.10%.[17] In 2001 Hindus made up 18,655,925 of the population, Sikhs 1,170,662, Muslims 1,222,196, Jains 57,167,Christians 27,185, and Buddhists 7,140.[18] Muslims are mainly in the Mewat districtand Yamuna Nagar district, while Sikhs are mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab,HisarSirsaJindFatehabadKaithalKurukshetraAmbala, and Panchkula.Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. These days the state is seeing a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from BiharBengalUttrakhandRajasthanUttar Pradesh andNepal.

[edit]Government and politics

Sushma_Swaraj Former Union Cabinet Minister,India born inPalwal,Haryana

Like in all other states of India, Haryana is governed through a governor, a largely ceremonial position who is appointed by the President of India. The Chief Minister is the head of the Haryana state government and is vested with most of the executive and legislative powers. Haryana’s legislature is unicameral; its one house, the Haryana Legislative Assembly, consists of 90 members. Haryana has five seats in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India’s national parliament, and ten in the Lok Sabha, the lower house. The largest political parties in Haryana are the Indian National Lok Dal,[CPI(M)], Haryana Janhit CongressBhartiya Janata Party,Bahujan Samaj Party[19] and Indian National Congress. The present political scenario of the state is clear and it has a stable government under Bhupinder Singh Hooda who is presently the Chief Minister of the state. During his presidency American president Jimmy Carter visitedCarterpuri village in Gurgaon.[20]

[edit]Culture

V_K_Singh General Vijay Kumar Singh Born in Bhiwani,Haryana

Swami Ramdev Yoga Guru born in Mahendragarh, Haryana

Haryana means Hari Ka Ana or the Land of arrival of God. Haryana has a rich cultural heritage that goes way back to the Vedic times. The last Hindu Emperor of India who belonged to Rewari in Haryana, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, also called Hemu, taking a cue from Vedic times declared himself a ‘Vikramaditya’ king after defeating Akbar’s forces in Delhi in 1556. It amounted to establishing a vedic ‘Hindu Raj’ in North India during medieval period after a gap of more than 350 years. The state is rich in folklore with the oldest extant romance of Sorath andDhaj, Ror Kumar.[21] The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age old customs ofmeditationYoga and chanting of Vedic Mantras, are still observed by the masses. Famous yoga guru Swami Ramdev is from Mahendragarh in Haryana.[22] Seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. Haryana has a variety of folk dances.

The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight. Regarding eating habits, there is an idiom that says, Hara-Bhara Haryana, Jit Doodh-Dahi ka Khana (meaning a lush-green state where milk and curd are the food).

[edit]Languages

See also: Haryanavi

Haryanavi and Hindi traditionally been the dominant language spoken by the martial people of Haryana. Post-1947, Punjabi is also spoken by a lot of people in Haryana especially by thoseHindus and Sikhs who came over from older Punjab region at the time of partition. Sanskrit is also taught in most of the schools in Haryana. In towns and cities, English is still to be adopted as the household lingo, but is spoken in a hazy mixture of Haryanvi. Other language is Ahirwati, it is anIndo-Aryan language, classified as a Rajasthani language,[23] and is spoken in the Mahendragarh,Rewari and Gurgaon districts of Haryana. According to famous historian Robert Vane Russell Ahirwati language is spoken in Rohtak and Gurgaon Districts of Punjab (now Haryana) and Delhi. This is akin to Mewati, one of the forms of Rajasthani or the language of Rajputana.[24] The most striking feature of Haryana is its language itself; or rather, the manner in which it is spoken. Popularly known as Haryanavi, with Bangaru being the most widely spoken dialect, it is perhaps a bit crude, but full of earthy humor and straightforwardness. With rapid urbanization, and due to Haryana’s close proximity to Delhi, the cultural aspects are now taking a more modern hue.

[edit]Music

See also: Music of Haryana

Raagni are very famous in Haryana and it is a part of folk music in Haryana.

[edit]Economy

Main article: Economy of Haryana

The headquarters of DLF Limited, India’s largest real estate company, in Gurgaon, Haryana.

The main manufacturing plant ofMaruti Suzuki, India’s largest automobile company, in Gurgaon, Haryana.

The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing, agriculture and retail.

[edit]Manufacturing

Sonipat is the largest industrial town wholly within Haryana. It has Asia’s largest paper millBILT[citation needed] and Asia’s largest Sugar Mill[citation needed]Sonipat has Asia’s largest timber industry[citation needed], an HPGCL thermal power plant, a hydro power plant and India’s largest Railway workshop[citation needed]. It is also famous for its old steel and brass industry[citation needed].

Faridabad is another big industrial part of Haryana.[25] It is home to hundreds of large scale companies like Orient Paper & Industries[citation needed], JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group (Escorts Limited), India Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd., WhirlpoolABB Group,Goodyear Tyres and Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd. There are thousands of medium and small scale units as well, like Amrit Enterprises, McAma Industries[citation needed].

Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in India[citation needed] and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle “Pachranga International” is also well known. Panipat also has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation, and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant, Hissar is another big city where Jindal company has established. Jindal Steel now increasing their business and open new factory in other state also.

Ambala is the largest manufacturer of Scientific Apparatuses.It is named as Science City of Haryana. Ambala is one of the biggest exporters of educational instruments in the country[citation needed]Ambala has largest whole sale cloth market in India[citation needed].

[edit]Service industries

Sonipat, has seen emergence of an active information technology industry in the recent years. With organisations like Nokia Siemens NetworksMitsubishi ElectricSchneider ElectricFuji ElectricABB ElectricGeneral Electric – GEHONEYWELLALSTOMMatsushita Electric,Nippon Electric Corporation Ltd.ERICSSONA2Z GroupAricent GroupAlcatel-Lucent,HuaweiTata Consultancy ServicesIBMNIITHewitt AssociatesDellAccentureConvergys,United Healthcare and The Boston Consulting Group have their Indian headquarters or branch offices and contact centers in Gurgaon.

[edit]Agriculture

Despite recent industrial development, Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. About 70% of residents are engaged in agriculture Wheat and rice are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India’s central pool of food grains. The main crops of Haryana are wheat, rice, sugarcanecottonoilseedspulsesbarleymaizemillet etc. There are two main types of crops in Haryana: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crops of Haryana are ricejowarbajramaizecottonjutesugarcanesesame and groundnut. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crops are wheat, tobaccopulseslinseedrapeseed and mustard. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning of November and the crops are harvested by March.

An agricultural area in Haryana. Haryanvi community is largely agrarian.

About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tube wells and an extensive system of canals. Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia’s biggest agricultural University[26] – Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar and it has made a significant contribution in ushering in the ‘Green Revolution’ in the state.

Dairy farming is also an essential part of the rural economy. Haryana has a livestock population of 98.97 lakh.[26] Milk and milk products form an essential part of the local diet. There is the saying Desaan main des Haryana, jit doodh dahi ka khaana, which means “Best among all the countries in the world is Haryana, where the staple food is milk and yoghurt”. Haryana, with 660 grams of availability of milk per capita per day, ranks at number two in the country as against the national average of 232 grams.[27][28] There is a vast network of milk societies that support the dairy industry. The National Dairy Research Institute[29] at Karnal is Asia’s largest and oldest dairy, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer technology. The Murrahbreed of water buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk production.

[edit]Roads, aviation and infrastructure

The 32 lane toll gate at National Highway 8 in Gurgaon is the largest in Asia and third largest in the world

It has a total road length of 23,684 kilometers. There are 29 national highways with total length of 1,461 km and many state highways with total length of 2,494 km. The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million Kilometers per day. It was the first State in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.[30] Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia’s oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of SonipatPanipatKarnal,Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6-km long Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2013.[31] Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are located in close proximity to the state. Haryana and Delhi government has also constructed Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway which has the largest toll plaza in Asia and 3rd largest in the world. There is a proposal for a Badarpur Flyover and the widening of the Mathura Road passing through Faridabad from 6 lanes to 8 lanes. There is also a proposal to connect Chandigarh to Haryana without entering Punjab through a 4-lane highway via Yamuna Nagar and Panchkula.

Chandigarh Monument

Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the State. Haryana was the first State in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970, first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and first in the country to provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state.[32] Haryana is well connected on the railway network also.

[edit]Communication and media

Haryana has a state-wide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own state-wide area network by which all government offices of 21 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.[33][34][35] Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata TeleservicesBharti TelecomIdea Vodafone EssarAircelUninor and Videocon) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are also an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like FaridabadGurgaon and Sonipat. The major newspapers of Haryana are New Bright StarAaj Samaj, Dainik Tribune, Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Bhaskar, The Times of India, Ampm News and Hari-Bhumiand delhi times

[edit]Administrative divisions

Main article: Districts of Haryana

The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purpose – Ambala Division, [Rohtak Division]], Gurgaon Division and Hisar Division. There are 21 districts, 47 sub-divisions, 67 tehsils, 45 sub-tehsils and 116 blocks. Haryana has a total of 81 cities and towns and 6,759 villages.

[edit]Districts

Ambala Division

Gurgaon Division

Hisar Division

Rohtak Division

[edit]Education

Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak

The state of Haryana has made tremendous progress in the field of higher education since its inception. SCERT Haryana Sonepat was established in April 1979. It was the conglomeration of State Institute of Education and State Institute of Science, to provide new dimensions to school education. It has been the endeavor of the government to make educational facilities available to the poorest of children. 32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the year 2004-05. Now accessibility to schooling is available within the radius of 1.10 km, 1.38 km, 1.66 km and 2.79 km at the primary, middle, high and senior secondary levels respectively.[36] During 2001-02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state.[37] Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March, and 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year.[38] The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the Bachelor’s Degree level.

North Haryana is more developed in terms of education and agriculture because of more fertile land and water availability. People from South Haryana were mostly government employees, soldiers and politicians but agriculture has picked up a lot in recent years as a result of efforts from the Haryana Agricultural UniversityHissar.

YMCA University of Science and Technology

Leading institutes for Technical and Engineering Education in Haryana are NIT Kurukshetra,YMCA University of Science and Technology,Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and TechnologyUniversity Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University,Technological Institute of Textile & SciencesBhiwaniUniversity Institute of Engineering & Technology (UIET),Maharshi Dayanand University(MDU), and the Chaudhary Devi Lal UniversitySirsa . Earlier YMCA University of Science and Technology was known by the name of “YMCA Institute of Engineering” before it has been granted University status since 1st Dec., 2009 (Established by Haryana State Legislative Act No. 21 of 2009 & Recognized by UGC Act 1956 u/s 22 to Confer Degrees), NIT Kurukshetra was known by the name of Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra. There are eight universities in the state. Technical education and management studies are provided by YMCA University of Science and Technology atFaridabadMaharishi Dayanand University at Rohtak have a University Institute of Engineering & Technology, University Campus (UIET, Rohtak), Manav Rachna International University at Faridabad, Lingaya’s University at FaridabadKurukshetra University at Kurukshetra,ITM University at GurgaonGuru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology at Hisar and Chaudhary Devi Lal University at Sirsa,Maharishi Markandeshwar University, MullanaChaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University at Hisar is one of the biggest agricultural universities in Asia. It is engaged in education, research and development related to agriculture. The Holy Land where the University stands was first transformed into a centre of learning in 1936 by Bhagat Phool Singh Ji when he started a Gurukul for girls. The Gurukul was opened after he opened a boys Gurukul in 1919 in Bhainswal Kalan which today is the South Campus of the University. The Gurukul, started with only three students grew in size, stature and reputation with time and in November 2006, the Haryana Legislative Assembly passed a Legislative Notification, vide no. 31/2006 making the Gurukul a full-fledged State University.

Apart from the above mentioned institutes, some of the top engineering colleges of Haryana are in its Capital – Chandigarh. Some of them are Punjab Engineering College, UIET (Punjab University) and CCET.

The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal provides education in the field of dairy science. It has been upgraded to the level of aDeemed University. There are medical colleges in Rohtak, Mullana and Agroha. Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak is a premier post-graduate medical institute in North India offering courses in major specialties and super specialties of medicine. There is also a Management Development Institute in Gurgaon.

[edit]Sports

[[File:Vijendersingh2.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Vijender Singh BeniwalMiddleweight Boxer from Bhiwani [Haryana]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vijender_Singh] [[File:Ballu.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Volleyball player Ror Balwant Singh Sagwal|right]] Haryana has produced some of the best Indian players in a variety of sports. In 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games 22 out of 38 Gold Medals came from Haryana.[39] During the 33rd National games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood 4th in the nation[40] with a medal tally of 80, including 30 Gold, 22 Silver and 28 Bronze medals. In team sports, Haryana is the national champion in men’svolleyball and women’s hockey. Haryana is a traditional powerhouse in games like KabbadiKho-khoJudoBoxingVolleyball andWrestling. Modern India’s most enjoyed game, cricket, is very popular Haryana. Haryana hurricane Kapil Dev is from Haryana. Wisden – The Bible of Cricket awarded Virender Sehwag the award for the best test match player for two consecutive years in 2008 and 2009.[41]Indian wrestler Sushil Kumar who won bronze medal in Beijing olympics and made a record in Delhi commonwealth games by winning the game in just 11 seconds in world history. Sports in the state are managed by the Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Haryana.Nahar Singh Stadium for international cricket was built in Faridabad in the year 1981. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators.[42] Tejli Sports Complex is an Ultra-Modern sports complex in Yamuna Nagar. The Tau Devi Lal Stadiumin Panchkula is a multi-sport complex.[43] It came into prominence because of the Indian Cricket League‘s inaugural Twenty20 tournament. Astroturf hockey grounds in Nehru Stadium, Gurgaon and Shahbad, Kurukshetra. Haryana even have a dedicated sports school MNSS at Rai, Sonipat which is affiliated to Sports Authority of India.

At the 2008 Olympics, Vijender Singh Beniwal won a middleweight (75 kg) bronze medal and Vikas Krishan Yadav boxer from Bhiwanidistrict won a gold medal in the 2010 Asian Games in the Lightweight category.[44] Manoj Kumar of village RajoundKaithal district won a gold medal in light welterweight ctegory at the 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games.

Haryana Sports Policy, 2009

Haryana has adopted a new sports policy on 21 August 2009, when Haryana Cabinet which met under the Chairmanship of Chief Minister, Mr Bhupinder Singh Hooda, approved the Sports Policy, 2009.[45]

In the 2010 Commonwealth Games, most of India’s male wrestlers were from Haryana.[46]

[edit]Health

 

[edit]See also

 

[edit]References

  1. ^ Kautilya describes them as martial and most heroic, while Panini includes among them the Kauravyas, the ancient warrior community of Haryana. It would thus appear that the main force of Chandragupta’s liberation army was recruited Punjab. AsHaryana or the ancient Kuru janapada….., Page 33, “Haryana, ancient and medieval” by H. A. Phadke, Publisher Harman Pub. House, 1990, ISBN 81-85151-34-2, 9788185151342
  2. ^ Chapter Kuru Janapada (Pages 2, 3 & 7) of the book “Buddhist remains from Haryana”, by Devendra Handa, Edition illustrated, Publisher Sundeep Prakashan, 2004 Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 3 September 2008
    If the Buddhist texts are to be relied upon, it may be said that Buddhism reached Haryana through the Buddha himself. (Page 3)
    Dipavamsa refers to Buddha’s visit to a city in the Kuru country where he received alms on the banks of the Anotatta lake which he crossed. The city may have been Kurukshetra….. (Page 3)
    We shall see subsequently that Agroha was an important Buddhist centre of Haryana…..Buddhaghosha’s candid confession that even a single monastery could not be set up in the Kuru country during the lifetime of Tathagata who was obliged to stay in the hermitage of a Brahmana…. (Page 7)
  3. ^ The ancient Kuru janapada is said to have comprised Kurukshetra, Thanesar, Karnal, Panipat, Sonipat….., Page 115, “Buddhist sites and shrines in India: history, art and architecture”, Volume 231 of Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica by D. C. Ahir, Publisher Sri Satguru Publications, 2003, ISBN 81-7030-774-0, 9788170307747
  4. ^ An Early Attestation of the Toponym Ḍhillī, by Richard J. Cohen, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1989, p. 513-519
    हरियाणए देसे असंखगाम, गामियण जणि अणवरथ काम|
    परचक्क विहट्टणु सिरिसंघट्टणु, जो सुरव इणा परिगणियं|
    रिउ रुहिरावट्टणु बिउलु पवट्टणु, ढिल्ली नामेण जि भणियं|
    Translation: There are countless villages in Haryanacountry. The villagers there work hard. They don’t accept domination of others, and are experts in making the blood of their enemies flow. Indra himself praises this country. The capital of this country is Dhilli.
  5. ^ Haryana to construct 6000 rooms for games
  6. ^ Poor rural India? It’s a richer place – International Herald Tribune
  7. ^ Byres, T.J.. Rural labour relations in India. Taylor & Francis, 1999. ISBN 071468046X, 9780714680460.
  8. ^ Government of India portal
  9. ^ IndianExpress.com :: Haryana Hurricane
  10. ^ Haryana Britannica Online Encyclopedia]
  11. a b Bijender K Punia (1994). Tourism management: problems and prospects. APH. p. 18. ISBN 9788170246435.
  12. a b J. N. Singh Yadav (1992). Yadavas through the ages, from ancient period to date: Volume 2. Sharada.ISBN 9788185616032.
  13. ^ Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 139.
  14. ^ Gordon, Stewart. The Marathas 1600–1818, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7.
  15. ^ 1 November 1966 – Haryana Day – History – Haryana Online – North India
  16. a b Geography of Haryana – Map, Shivaliks, Ghaggar, Yamuna, Saraswati, Morni – India
  17. ^ name=”haryana-online.com”
  18. ^ Census of India, Population by Religious Communities
  19. ^ Haryana.bspindia.org
  20. ^ Reverse Take
  21. ^ This is a book by a Jat author. Page 19, “Ror Itihaas ki Jhalak” (Hindi) by Dr. Raj Pal Singh, Pal Publications, Yamuna Nagar (1987)
  22. ^ Thecolorsofindia.com
  23. ^ District History
  24. ^ Google Books
  25. ^ The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Delhi and neighbourhood
  26. a b Haryana
  27. ^ Haryana number two in milk production The Times of India
  28. ^ Haryana 2nd in milk yield
  29. ^ Telegraphindia.com
  30. ^ Why Haryana? – Economic Infrastructure
  31. ^ IndianExpress.com :: KMP Expressways to be completed by 2009
  32. ^ :::: Investment Promotion Center:::::: Govt. of HARYANA
  33. ^ Egovonline.net
  34. ^ Punjabnewsline.com
  35. ^ “The Tribune India”The Tribune. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
  36. ^ Welcome to India in Business: Know India
  37. ^ Education in Haryana – Universities – Colleges – Schools – Institutions – Engineering – Medical
  38. ^ Hbse.nic.in
  39. ^ Mizoramexpress.com
  40. ^ Official site for the 33rd National Games 2007, Guwahati
  41. ^ “Wisden cricket almanack”Wisden Cricket Almanack. Wisden. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  42. ^ Cricinfo – Grounds – Nahar Singh Stadium, Faridabad
  43. ^ Cricinfo – Grounds – Tau Devi Lal Cricket Stadium, Panchkula, Chandigarh
  44. ^ Vikas Krishan Yadav
  45. ^ Hr.abclive.in
  46. ^ Blake, Linda (6 October 2010). “Mud Wrestling Breeds Champions”The Wall Street Journal.
  47. ^ Garyanahealtch.nic.in

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