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Haryana has been derived from its ancient inhabitants Abhirayana that got changed to Ahirayana over a period and to present day Haryana. Similarly The name ‘Abhira’ stemed from Abhira or the fearless, the honour they earned after the Battle of the Mahabharata.In the 1st AD, invading Scythians and Kushans forced Ahirs out of their land to lower Rajasthan in the Aravali Region. [6] [7]

[edit]Ancient period


Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra.

Haryana was the cradle of the Indus Valley Civilization with centers such as Banawali and Rakhigarhi. The most extensive center was Rakhigarhi, which is now a village in Hisar District. The site is dated to be over 5,000 years old with evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered.

Also the Vedic Civilization flourished on the banks of the now lost Saraswati river. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic Battle of Kurukshetra described in the Mahabharata (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita byKrishna) and the three battles of Panipat.

[edit]Medieval period

After ousting the Huns, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas continued to rule over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha‘s adopted capital of Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more as central asKannaujPrithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to ‘Hariana’ occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals orrajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.

The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabuldefeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. In the second battle of Panipat (November 5, 1556), Akbar‘s forces defeated the Hindu king Hem Chandra Vikramaditya also called Hemu, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and who had won 22 battles during 1553-1556 before acceeding to Delhi throne. The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively, on January 13, 1761.

[edit]British period

The Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848 to 1849 resulted in the Battle of Gujrat on 21 February 1849, at which the British defeated the Sikhs. As a result of this, on 2 April 1849 they annexed the Punjab as a new province of British India. This included most of Haryana, while the rest were ruled by the princely states of LoharuNabhaJind and Patiala. During the Indian rebellion of 1857, several leaders from this region, including Rao Tula Ram, participated actively. People of Haryana took an active part in the Indian Independence movement. Many battles were fought by the rulers of the states and by the farmers also, sometimes defeating the British army. Some most important fights were at Sonipat, Rohtak, Sirsa and Hissar. In Sirsa the famous battle of Chormar was fought. Later, leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram played an important role in the politics of the Punjab province. Rao Tula Ram was one of the important leaders of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

[edit]Formation of Haryana

Haryana state was formed on 1 November, 1966, on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April, 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people. The commission gave its report on 31 May, 1966. According to this report the then districts of HissarMahendragarhGurgaonRohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the Tehsils ofJind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur), NaraingarhAmbala and Jagadhari were also to be included. The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should be a part of Haryana.[8]

The city of Chandigarh, and a Punjabi speaking area of district Rupnagar were made a union territory serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. According to the Rajiv-Longowal AccordChandigarh was to be transferred to the state of Punjab in 1986, but the transfer was delayed and it has not been executed so far. Also, at the same time, a Jangan-na was done inAbohar and Fazilka sub-divisions of Firozpur District of Punjab so that any Hindi speaking areas from these sub-divisions could be transferred to Haryana.



Morni Hills in Haryana


Yamuna River near the Haryana Border

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is located between 27°37′ to 30°35′ N latitude and between 74°28′ and 77°36′ E longitude. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.

Rivers of Haryana: The river Yamuna flows along its eastern boundary. The ancient Saraswati river was thought to have flowed through Haryana, but it has now disappeared.

The river Ghaggar is Haryana’s main seasonal river. The Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej and enters Haryana near Pinjore, district Panchkula. Passing through Ambala and Hissar, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs a course of 290 miles before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan.

The Markanda river’s ancient name was Aruna. A seasonal stream like the Ghaggar, it originates from the lower Shivalik hills and enters Haryana nearAmbala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati.

An important tributary is the Tangri. The Sahibi originates in the Mewat hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. On reaching Rohtak it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into the Yamuna. There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills – Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south.[9]


The climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season (July-September) and sometimes causes local flooding.[9]

[edit]Flora and Fauna of Haryana


Blackbuck male and female


Buffalo common site in villages.

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberryeucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black bucknilgaipantherfoxmongoosejackal and wild dog.


The population of Haryana, according to the 2001 census, is 21,144,000, with 11,364,000 males and 9,781,000 females. The population density is 477 people/km2. Haryana, along with neighboring Punjab, has a skewed sex ratioat 861, with many more men than women. Selective abortion of female fetuses has a very high provenance, reflecting a widespread preference for the male child.

Hindus make up about 84% of the population, Sikhs 15% Muslims 1%, Jains 0.3%, Christians 0.1% and Buddhists 0.03%.[11] Muslims are mainly in theMewat district, while Sikhs are mostly in the districts adjoining PunjabAgriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. These days the state is seeing a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from BiharBengal and Nepal.

In the context of Haryana, the number of films produced remained very small till 1984. In the 70s, only two Haryanvi movies were released, Harphool Singh and Beera Shera. Both the films failed in catching the imagination of the Haryanvi people because they did not represent the true culture of Haryana. After the failure of these two Haryanvi films, nobody dared to produce a Haryanvi film for a decade. However, in 1980, a few youngsters having an active interest in the production of Haryanvi films approached Devi Shankar Prabhakar to help them with their cause.

When Chandrawal was released in March 1984, it created a stir in the film industry. Chandrawal broke all records on the box-office in Haryana, Western U.P., Delhi and parts of Rajasthan. It surpasses the great hit Hindi films like Sholay and Bobby in these parts of India. The entire cost of the film was recovered from the window of Gagan Cinema, Faridabad where the film celebrated Silver Jubilee. In Western U.P., the film even surpassed the success of Haryana when it celebrated its Golden Jubilee in Muzaffarnagar and Silver Jubilee in Meerut, Shamli andSaharanpur. Chandrawal set a world record and the producers of the movie honoured a dozen cine-goers of Haryana and Western U.P., who watched the movie more than 200 times each.

The unprecedented success of Chandrawal created widespread temptation amongst investors for producing Haryanvi films in order to make fast money. Just after Chandrawal a number of films were produced by many different producers with titles like Gulabo, Ke Sapne Ka Jikar, Chhora Haryana Ka, Bateu, Bhanwer Chameli, Chhori Supelle Ki, Panghat and others. The films produced under the banner of Prabhakar Films have maintained their leading position in the field. After Chandrawal came Laddo Basanti in 1985 Phool Badan in 1986 and Jaatni in 1991. Though these films could not recreate the magic of Chandrawal in terms of financial gains, yet these films became popular with the people.


Mughal Gardens in Pinjore in Haryana

[edit]Government and politics

Like in all other states of India, the head of state of Haryana is the Governor, a largely ceremonial position, who is appointed by the President of India. The Chief Minister is the head of the Haryana state government and is vested with most of the executive powers. Haryana’s legislature is unicameral; its one house, the Haryana Legislative Assembly, consists of 90 members. Haryana has five seats in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India’s national parliament, and ten in the Lok Sabha, the lower house. The largest political parties in Haryana are theIndian National Lok DalBhartiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress. The present political scenario of the state is clear and it has a stable government under Bhupinder Singh Hooda who is presently the Chief Minister of the state.



World-Class buildings were built to make Gurgaon more appealing for investors

Economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, retailing and information outsourcing.[citation needed] In 2006-07 Haryana received a foreign direct investment projects of over Rs 11,000 crore in the state and corporate sector and had a fiscal deficit of 0.6 per cent in financial year 2006-07 [12] Haryana also toped the list in terms of per capita investment in the fiscal year 2007 with an investment of Rs 1,86,045 crore.[13][14] Haryana is also considered one of the most industrilised states in India with many SEZs. New plans for Sezs are of Reliance Industries which has plans to set up amulti-product special economic zone in Haryana.[15] At an investment of Rs 40,000 crore, the project will be India’s largest SEZ spread over 25,000 acres.[15][16] The state has a developed banking system with over 4500 bank branches.The two financial hubs of Haryana, Gurgaon and faridabad lie on the south west of the state. Haryana

The contribution of primary, secondary and tertiary sectors for the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) in 2007-08 is Rs. 21,265.92 crore, Rs. 30,919.95 crore and Rs.49,133.55 crore respectively. Over 3% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Haryana.[citation needed]



Maruti Suzuki plant at Gurgaon

More than a thousand medium and large industries with a capital investment of Rs. 2000 billion or $ 40.4 billion have been established in the state in mainly GurgaonPanchkulaPanipatFaridabad and Bahadurgarh. As a result, Haryana’s share in national production is 50% of passenger cars, 50% of motorcycles, 30% of refrigerators, 25% of tractors, bicycles and sanitary wares, and 20% of the country’s export of scientific instruments.[17] These include Hindustan National Glass, Maruti Udyog LimitedEscortsHero HondaAlcatelSonyWhirlpool IndiaBharti Telecom, Liberty Shoes andHindustan Machine Tools. In addition there are more than 80,000 small-scale industrial units in the state which cumulatively bring in a substantial income for the state and its people. Yamunanagar district has a paper mill BILT, Haryana has a large production of cars, motorcycles, tractors, sanitary ware, glass container industry, gas stoves and scientific instruments.

Faridabad is another big industrial part of Haryana.[18] It is home to hundreds of large scale companies like Orient fans (C.K.Birla Group), JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group (Escorts Limited), Yamaha Motor India Pvt. Ltd., WhirlpoolABB, Goodyear Tyres, Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd. There are thousands of medium and small scale units as well, like Amrit Enterprises, McAma Industries.

Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle “Pachranga International” is also well known. Panipat also has heavy industry, with a refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation, a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant and a National Fertilizers Limited plant.

[edit]Service Industry


Cyber Greens Office Complex contains the offices of ABN Amro, Microsoft IBM Daksh, Sapient, Nokia, Canon, and Alcatel in Gurgaon

Gurgaon is considered the best city for setting up a software or BPO centre in India[19]. This is according to a research on Offshore Competitiveness conducted by neoIT, an offshoring consultancy. Gurgaon, has seen emergence of an active information technology industry in the recent years. With organisations like Tata Consultancy ServicesIBMHewitt AssociatesDellConvergysUnited Healthcare and NIIT setting up back offices or contact centers in Gurgaon. Haryana now ranks 3rd among states in software exports from India.[17] Establishment of Nano City[20] a joint venture between the Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) and Nano Works Developers Private Ltd, a company promoted by Sabeer Bhatia, the much talked about creator of Hotmail will further boost the state position in this sector.

[edit]Agriculture and livestock

Despite recent industrial development, Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. About 70% of residents are engaged in agriculture Wheat and rice are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India’s central pool of food grains. The main crops of Haryana are wheatricesugarcanecottonoilseedsgrambarleycornmillet etc. There are two main types of crops in Haryana: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crops of Haryana arericejowarbajramaizecottonjutesugarcanesesame and groundnut. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crops are wheattobaccogramlinseedrapeseed and mustard. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning of November and the crops are harvested by March.

About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tubewells and an extensive system of canals. Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia‘s biggest agricultural University[21] – Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar and it has made a significant contribution in ushering in the ‘Green Revolution’ in the state.

Dairy farming is also an essential part of the rural economy. Haryana has a livestock population of 98.97 lakh.[21] Milk and milk products form an essential part of the local diet. There is the saying Desaan main des Haryana, jit doodh dahi ka khaana, which means “Best among all the countries in the world is Haryana, where the staple food is milk and yoghurt”. Haryana, with 660 grams of availability of milk per capita per day, ranks at number two in the country as against the national average of 232 grams.[22][23] There is a vast network of milk societies that support the dairy industry. The National Dairy Research Institute [24] at Karnal, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer technology. The Murrah breed of water buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk production.

[edit]Roads, Aviation and Infrastructure


The 32 lane toll gate at National Highway 8 is the largest in Asia and third largest in the world in Gurgaon.

Haryana is a trend setter in the field of passenger transport. It has a total road length of 23684 kilometers. The remotest parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million Kilometers per day. It was the first State in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.[25] Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia‘s oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of SonipatPanipatKarnalKurukshetra and Ambalain north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and free ways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6-km longKundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Jhajjar, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July. 2009.[26] Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are located in close proximity to the state. Haryana and Delhi government has also constructed Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway which has the largest toll plaza in Asia and 3rd largest in the world. With the proposed Badarpur Flyover and the widening of the Mathura Road passing thought Faridabad from 6 lane to 8 lanes, things are suddenly looking very bright in the state roadways sector.

Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the State. Haryana was the first State in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970, first in the country to link all villages with all weather roads and first in the country to provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state[17] Haryana is well connected on the railway network as well. The main railway routes passing through Haryana are: Amritsar – Delhi, Rewari – Ahmedabad, Bhiwani – Rohtak – Delhi, Ambala – Ferozepur, Delhi – Ferozepur, Kalka – Jodhpur, Kalka – Howrah, Amritsar – Howrah and Delhi – Shimla

2 of the 16 airlines in India are based in Gurgaon which is just a few kilometers from the international airport in Delhi

[edit]Communication and Media

Haryana has a state-wide network of highly efficient telecommunication facilities. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance InfocomTata TeleservicesBharti TelecomIdea and Vodafone Essar) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are also an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like FaridabadGurgaonBahadurgarh and Kundli. The major newspapers of Haryana are Punjab Kesari,Jag BaniDainik JagranThe TribuneAmar UjalaHindustan TimesDainik BhaskarThe Times of India and Hari-Bhumi. Government of HARYANA has decided to provide plot areas in all four divisions for “Press Bhawan”. Haryana Press Club has been authorised to build & operate those press bhawans, by Haryana government.


The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purpose – AmbalaRohtakGurgaon and Hisar Division. There are 21 districts, 47 sub-divisions, 67 tehsils, 45 sub-tehsils and 116 blocks. Haryana has a total of 81 cities and towns. It has 6,759 villages.


Ambala Division 

Gurgaon Division

Hisar Division 

Rohtak Division


The state of Haryana has made tremendous expansion in the field of higher education since its inception. SCERT Haryana Gurgaon was established in April 1979. It was the conglomeration of State Institute of Education and State Institute of Science, to provide new dimensions to school education. It has been the endeavor of the government to make educational facilities available to the poorest of children. 32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the year 2004-05. Now accessibility to schooling is available within the radius of 1.10 km, 1.38 km, 1.66 km and 2.79 km at the primary, middle, high and senior secondary levels respectively.[27] During 2001-02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state.[28] Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March, and 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year.[29] The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the Bachelor’s Degree level.


Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak

Leading institutes for Technical and Engineering Education in Haryana are NIT Kurukshetra,Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University Of Science and TechnologyYMCA Institute of Engineering. Earlier NIT Kurukshetra was famous by the name Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra. There are five universities in the state. Technical education and management studies are provided by Maharishi Dayanand University at Rohtak have aUniversity Institute Of Engg. & Tech.,University Campus named as U.I.E.T.,ROHTAKKurukshetra University at KurukshetraGuru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology at Hisar and Chaudhary Devi Lal University at SirsaChaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural Universityat Hisar is one of the biggest agricultural universities in Asia. It is engaged in education, research and development related to agriculture. The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal provides education in the field of dairy science. It has been upgraded to the level of a Deemed University. There are medical colleges in Rohtak, Mullana and Agroha. Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak is a premier post-graduate medical institute in North India offering courses in major specialties and super specialties of medicine. There is also the Management Development Institute in Gurgaon, which is amongst the premier management institutes of India. The Institute named The Technological Institute of Textile and science’s come into existence in 1947, A very well named college in Haryana in the field of Textiles.

[edit]Sports and youth development


Kabbadi match in progress

Haryana is one of the leading states in sports as well. During the 33rd National games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood 4th in the nation[30] with a medal tally of 80, including 30 Gold, 22 Silver and 28 Bronze medals. In team sports, Haryana is the national champion in Men’s Volleyball and Women’s hockey. Haryana is a traditional powerhouse in games like kabbadikho-khojudoboxing and wrestling.Sports in the state are managed by the Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Haryana. Nahar Singh Stadium for international cricket was built in Faridabad in the year 1981. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators.[31] The Tau Devi Lal Stadium inGurgaon is a multi-sport complex.[32] It came into prominence because of the Indian Cricket League‘s inaugural Twenty20 tournament. The DLF golf course in Gurgaon offers challenging play for golfers of all skill levels and a natural beauty that envelops your senses.[33] Astro-Turf Hockey grounds in Nehru Stadium, Gurgaon and Shahbad, Kurukshetra.

In the Beijing Olympics 2008 sportspersons from Harayna exhibited high level of competitiveness especially in the field of boxing. In middleweight category Vijender Kumar was awarded his middleweight (75 kg) bronze medal. Vijender happens to be the first Indian boxer to win a medal in Olympic games.

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