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Mysore Palace Morning.jpg
7th - 9th century Hindu and Jain temples, Pattadakal monuments Karnataka 5.jpg
Brindavan Gardens.JPG
Hoysala emblem.jpg
Barachukki - a revelation.jpg
Hampi virupaksha temple.jpg
Coat of arms of Karnataka
Coat of arms
Map of Karnataka
Map of Karnataka
Coordinates (Bangalore): 12.97°N 77.50°ECoordinates12.97°N 77.50°E
Country  India
Formation 1 November 1956
(as Mysore State)
and largest city
Bangalore (Bengaluru)
 • Body Government of Karnataka
 • Governor Vajubhai Vala
 • Chief Minister H. D. Kumaraswamy (JD (S))
 • Deputy Chief Minister G. Parameshwara (INC)
 • Legislature Bicameral
 • High Court Karnataka High Court
 • Total 191,791 km2(74,051 sq mi)
Area rank 7th
Highest elevation 1,925 m (6,316 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 61,130,704
 • Rank 8th
 • Density 320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Kannadiga
GDP (2018–19)[3][4]
 • Total ₹14.08 lakh crore(US$200 billion)
 • Per capita ₹174,551 (US$2,400)
Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 code IN-KA
Official languages Kannada[5]
HDI (2015) Increase 0.662[6] medium · 13th
Literacy (2011) 75.36%[7]
Sex ratio (2011) 973 /1000 [7]
Symbols of Karnataka
Emblem Gandaberunda[8]
Song Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate[9]
Animal Indian elephant[10]
Bird Indian Roller[10]
Flower Lotus[10]
Tree Sandalwood[10]

Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore (Bengaluru).

Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districtsKannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside KonkaniMarathiTuluTamilTeluguMalayalamKodava and Beary. Karnataka also has the only 3 naturally Sanskrit-speaking districts in India.

The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the BhimaGhataprabhaVedavathiMalaprabha, and Tungabhadra, in the north, and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the HemavatiShimshaArkavatiLakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal.

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning “elevated land”. Karu nadu may also be read as karu, meaning “black”, and nadu, meaning “region”, as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The Britishused the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.[11]

The economy of Karnataka is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.08 lakh crore (US$200 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000 (US$2,400).[3][4] With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.


Photo of brown cone-topped temple ruins


Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal, built successively by the kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Karnataka’s pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region.[12] Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.[13][14]

Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region’s emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi;[15][16] the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with Talakad as its capital.[17][18]

Sala fighting the Lion, the emblem of Hoysala Empire
Brown stone statue of smiling deity sitting cross-legged under arch
Statue of Ugranarasimha at Hampi, located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire

These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscriptionand a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi.[19][20] These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas,[21][22] the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta[23][24] and the Western Chalukya Empire,[25][26] which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literaturewhich became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century.[27][28] Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century.[29] The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule.[29]

At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesarastyle of architecture.[30][31][32][33] The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.[34][35]

In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota.[36] The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century.[37][38]The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbazbeing one of the high points of this style.[39] During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from SalcetteGoa,[40] while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.[41]


1792 Portrait of Tipu Sultan, kept at the British Library

In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers.[42] In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent.[43] With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IIHaidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tipu Sultan.[44] To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan’s death and the incorporation of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799.[45] The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj.


Chief Minister Dr. Devaraj Ursannouncing the new name of the Mysore state as ‘Karnataka’

As the “doctrine of lapse” gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur ChennammaSangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848.[46] Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at SupaBagalkotShorapurNargund and Dandeli. These rebellions — which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857 – were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata RayaS. NijalingappaKengal HanumanthaiahNittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.[47]

After India’s independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom’s accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973.[48] In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, born in MuddenahalliChikballapurdistrict, played an important role in the development of Karnataka’s strong manufacturing and industrial base.


Wide photo of large waterfall in mist


Jog Falls, formed by Sharavathi River, are the second highest plunge waterfalls in India.

The state has three principal geographical zones:

  1. The coastal region of Karavali
  2. The hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats
  3. The Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the Deccan plateau

The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme region, the northern part of which is the second-largest arid region in India.[49] The highest point in Karnataka is the Mullayanagiri hills in Chickmagalur district which has an altitude of 1,929 metres (6,329 ft). Some of the important rivers in Karnataka are KaveriTungabhadraKrishnaMalaprabha and the Sharavathi. A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation and hydel power generation capacities of the state.

Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations[50] — the Archeancomplex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, the Proterozoic non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks. Laterite cappings that are found in many districts over the Deccan Traps were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. EntisolsInceptisolsMollisolsSpodosolsAlfisolsUltisolsOxisolsAridisolsVertisolsAndisols and Histosols.[50] Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateriticblack, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.

Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. Meteorologically, Karnataka is divided into three zones — coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm (143 in) per annum, far in excess of the state average of 1,139 mm (45 in). Agumbe in the Shivamogga district receives the second highest annual rainfall in India.[51] The highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F) at Raichur and the lowest recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at Bidar.

About 38,724 km2 (14,951 sq mi) of Karnataka (i.e. 20% of the state’s geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all-India average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy.[52]


There are 30 districts in Karnataka:

Each district is governed by a district commissioner or district magistrate. The districts are further divided into sub-divisions, which are governed by sub-divisional magistrates; sub-divisions comprise blocks containing panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.

At the 2011 census, Karnataka’s ten largest cities, sorted in order of decreasing population, were BangaloreHubliDharwadMysuruGulbargaBelgaumMangaloreDavangereBellaryVijayapur and Shimoga.[54]


Regions of Karnataka

Rank City District Population (2011)
1 Bangalore (Bengaluru) Bangalore Urban 8,728,906
2 Hubli-Dharwad (Hubballi–Dharwad) Dharwad district 943,857
3 Mysore (Mysuru) Mysore district 887,446
4 Gulbarga (Kalaburagi) Gulbarga district 532,031
5 Belgaum (Belagavi) Belgaum district 488,292
6 Mangalore (Mangaluru) Dakshina Kannada district 484,785
7 Davanagere (Davangere) Davanagere district 435,128
8 Bellary (Ballari) Bellary district 409,444
9 Vijayapur (Bijapur) Vijayapur district 327,427
10 Shimoga (Shivamogga) Shimoga district 322,428


According to the 2011 census of India,[56] the total population of Karnataka was 61,095,297 of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and 30,128,640 (49.3%) were female, or 1000 males for every 973 females. This represents a 15.60% increase over the population in 2001. The population density was 319 per km2and 38.67% of the people lived in urban areas. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females being literate. 84.00% of the population were Hindu, 12.92% were Muslim, 1.87% were Christian, 0.72% were Jains, 0.16% were Buddhist, 0.05% were Sikh and 0.02% were belonging to other religions and 0.27% of the population did not state their religion.[57]

Kannada is the official language of Karnataka and spoken as a native language by about 66.54% of the people as of 2011. Other linguistic minorities in the state were Urdu (10.83%), Telugu (5.84%), Tamil (3.45%), Marathi (3.38%), Hindi (3.3%), Tulu(2.61%), Konkani (1.29%), Malayalam (1.27%) and Kodava Takk (0.18%).[58] In 2007 the state had a birth rate of 2.2%, a death rate of 0.7%, an infant mortality rate of 5.5% and a maternal mortality rate of 0.2%. The total fertility rate was 2.2.[59]

In the field of speciality health care, Karnataka’s private sector competes with the best in the world.[60] Karnataka has also established a modicum of public health services having a better record of health care and child care than most other states of India. In spite of these advances, some parts of the state still leave much to be desired when it comes to primary health care.[61]

Government and administration[edit]

Karnataka has a parliamentary system of government with two democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. The Legislative Assembly consists of 224 members who are elected for five-year terms.[62] The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 75 members with one-third (25 members) retiring every two years.[62]

The government of Karnataka is headed by the Chief Minister who is chosen by the ruling party members of the Legislative Assembly. The Chief Minister, along with the council of ministers, executes the legislative agenda and exercises most of the executive powers.[63] However, the constitutional and formal head of the state is the Governor who is appointed for a five-year term by the President of India on the advice of the Union government.[64] The people of Karnataka also elect 28 members to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament.[65] The members of the state Legislative Assembly elect 12 members to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament.

For administrative purposes, Karnataka has been divided into four revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 30 districts, 175 taluksand 745 hoblies / revenue circles.[66] The administration in each district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Karnataka state services. The Deputy Commissioner of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service and assisted by the officers of the Karnataka Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district. The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of managing forests, environment and wildlife of the district, he will be assisted by the officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Service and officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Subordinate Service. Sectoral development in the districts is looked after by the district head of each development department such as Public Works Department, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, etc. The judiciary in the state consists of the Karnataka High Court (Attara Kacheri) in Bangalore, Dharwad and Gulbarga, district and session courts in each district and lower courts and judges at the taluk level.

Politics in Karnataka has been dominated by three political parties, the Indian National Congress, the Janata Dal (Secular)and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[67] Politicians from Karnataka have played prominent roles in federal government of India with some of them having held the high positions of Prime Minister and Vice-President. Border disputes involving Karnataka’s claim on the Kasaragod[68] and Solapur[69] districts and Maharashtra‘s claim on Belgaum are ongoing since the states reorganisation.[70] The official emblem of Karnataka has a Ganda Berunda in the centre. Surmounting this are four lions facing the four directions, taken from the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. The emblem also carries two Sharabhas with the head of an elephant and the body of a lion.


Line graph of yearly growth


GSDP Growth of the Karnatakan Economy over the previous years

Karnataka had an estimated GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) of about US$115.86 billion in the 2014–15 fiscal year.[71] The state registered a GSDP growth rate of 7% for the year 2014–2015.[72] Karnataka’s contribution to India’s GDP in the year 2014–15 was 7.54%.[71] With GDP growth of 17.59% and per capita GDP growth of 16.04%, Karnataka is on the 6th position among all states and union territories.[73][74] In an employment survey conducted for the year 2013–2014, the unemployment rate in Karnataka was 1.8% compared to the national rate of 4.9%.[75] In 2011–2012, Karnataka had an estimated poverty ratio of 20.91% compared to the national ratio of 21.92%.[76]

Nearly 56% of the workforce in Karnataka is engaged in agriculture and related activities.[77] A total of 12.31 million hectares of land, or 64.6% of the state’s total area, is cultivated.[78] Much of the agricultural output is dependent on the southwest monsoon as only 26.5% of the sown area is irrigated.[78]

Karnataka is the manufacturing hub for some of the largest public sector industries in India, including Hindustan Aeronautics LimitedNational Aerospace LaboratoriesBharat Heavy Electricals LimitedBharat Earth Movers Limited and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools), which are based in Bangalore. Many of India’s premier science and technology research centres, such as Indian Space Research OrganisationCentral Power Research InstituteBharat Electronics Limited and the Central Food Technological Research Institute, are also headquartered in Karnataka. Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limitedis an oil refinery, located in Mangalore.

The state has also begun to invest heavily in solar power centred on the Pavagada Solar Park. As of December 2017, the state has installed an estimated 2.2 gigwatts of block solar panelling and in January 2018 announced a tender to generate a further 1.2 gigawatts in the coming years: Karnataka Renewable Energy Development suggests that this will be based on 24 separate systems (or ‘blocks’) generating 50 megawatts each.[79]

Pie chart of economy sectors


Contribution to economy by sector

Since the 1980s, Karnataka has emerged as the pan-Indian leader in the field of IT (information technology). In 2007, there were nearly 2,000 firms operating in Karnataka. Many of them, including two of India’s biggest software firms, Infosys and Wipro, are also headquartered in the state.[80] Exports from these firms exceeded ₹50,000 crores ($12.5 billion) in 2006–07, accounting for nearly 38% of all IT exports from India.[80] The Nandi Hills area in the outskirts of Devanahalli is the site of the upcoming $22 billion, 50 square kilometre BIAL IT Investment Region, one of the largest infrastructure projects in the history of Karnataka.[81] All this has earned the state capital, Bangalore, the sobriquet Silicon Valley of India.[82]

Karnataka also leads the nation in biotechnology. It is home to India’s largest biocluster, with 158 of the country’s 320 biotechnology firms being based here.[83] The state accounts for 75% of India’s floriculture, an upcoming industry which supplies flowers and ornamental plants worldwide.[84]

Seven of India’s banks, Canara BankSyndicate BankCorporation BankVijaya BankKarnataka BankING Vysya Bank and the State Bank of Mysore originated in this state.[85] The coastal districts of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada have a branch for every 500 persons—the best distribution of banks in India.[86] In March 2002, Karnataka had 4767 branches of different banks with each branch serving 11,000 persons, which is lower than the national average of 16,000.[87]

A majority of the silk industry in India is headquartered in Karnataka, much of it in Doddaballapura, and the state government intends to invest ₹70 crore in a “Silk City” at Muddenahalli, near Bangalore International Airport.[88][89]


Air transport in Karnataka, as in the rest of the country, is still a fledgling but fast expanding sector. Karnataka has airports at BangaloreMangaloreBelgaumHubliHampiBellary and Mysore with international operations from Bangalore and Mangalore airports.[90]

Karnataka has a railway network with a total length of approximately 3,089 kilometres (1,919 mi). Until the creation of the South Western Zone headquartered at Hubli in 2003, the railway network in the state was in the Southern and Western railway zones. Several parts of the state now come under the South Western Zone, with the remainder under the Southern Railways. Coastal Karnataka is covered under the Konkan railway network which was considered India’s biggest railway project of the century.[91] Bangalore is well-connected with inter-state destinations, while other towns in the state are not.[92]


Norwegian Star, a Cruise shipdocked at the New Mangalore Port

Karnataka has 11 ports, including the New Mangalore Port, a major port and ten minor ports, of which three were operational in 2012.[93] The New Mangalore port was incorporated as the ninth major port in India on 4 May 1974.[94] This port handled 32.04 million tonnes of traffic in the fiscal year 2006–07 with 17.92 million tonnes of imports and 14.12 million tonnes of exports. The port also handled 1015 vessels including 18 cruise vessels during the year 2006–07. Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).[95] Cruise ships from EuropeNorth America and UAE arrive at New Mangalore Port to visit the tourist places across Coastal Karnataka.[96][97]

The total lengths of National Highways and state highways in Karnataka are 3,973 and 9,829 kilometres (2,469 and 6,107 mi), respectively. The KSRTC, the state public transport corporation, transports an average of 2.2 million passengers daily and employs about 25,000 people.[98] In the late nineties, KSRTC was split into four corporations, viz., The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation, The North-East Karnataka Road Transport Corporation and The North-West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation with their headquarters in Bangalore, Gulbarga and Hubli respectively, and with the remnant of the KSRTC maintaining operations in the rest of the state from its headquarters in Bangalore.[98]


Flag with 3 bars of yellow, white and red with Karnataka's state emblem in the middle of the white bar
State flag for Karnataka was unilaterally adopted by the Government of Karnataka in 2018
Flag with 2 bars of yellow and red
The Kannada flag is widely used in Karnataka, though it is not officially recognised

The diverse linguistic and religious ethnicities that are native to Karnataka, combined with their long histories, have contributed immensely to the varied cultural heritage of the state. Apart from Kannadigas, Karnataka is home to TuluvasKodavas and Konkanis. Minor populations of Tibetan Buddhists and tribes like the Soligas, Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis also live in Karnataka. The traditional folk arts cover the entire gamut of music, dance, drama, storytelling by itinerant troupes, etc. Yakshagana of Malnad and coastal Karnataka, a classical dance drama, is one of the major theatrical forms of Karnataka. Contemporary theatre culture in Karnataka remains vibrant with organisations like NinasamRanga ShankaraRangayana and Prabhat Kalavidaru continuing to build on the foundations laid by Gubbi VeerannaT. P. KailasamB. V. KaranthK V Subbanna, Prasanna and others.[99] VeeragaseKamsaleKolata and Dollu Kunitha are popular dance forms. The Mysore style of Bharatanatya, nurtured and popularised by the likes of the legendary Jatti Tayamma, continues to hold sway in Karnataka, and Bangalore also enjoys an eminent place as one of the foremost centres of Bharatanatya.[100]

Person with painted eyes in yakshagana costume, as gold-spangled robe with red sheer scarf and spiked headress on gold crown


yakshagana artist

Karnataka also has a special place in the world of Indian classical music, with both Karnataka[101] (Carnatic) and Hindustani styles finding place in the state, and Karnataka has produced a number of stalwarts in both styles. The Haridasa movement of the sixteenth century contributed significantly to the development of Karnataka (Carnatic) music as a performing art form. Purandara Dasa, one of the most revered Haridasas, is known as the Karnataka Sangeeta Pitamaha (‘Father of Karnataka a.k.a. Carnatic music’).[102] Celebrated Hindustani musicians like Gangubai HangalMallikarjun MansurBhimsen JoshiBasavaraja RajaguruSawai Gandharva and several others hail from Karnataka, and some of them have been recipients of the Kalidas SammanPadma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan awards. Noted Carnatic musicians include Violin T. Chowdiah, Veena Sheshanna, Mysore Vasudevachar, Doreswamy Iyengar and Thitte Krishna Iyengar.

Gamaka is another classical music genre based on Carnatic music that is practised in Karnataka. Kannada Bhavageete is a genre of popular music that draws inspiration from the expressionist poetry of modern poets. The Mysore school of painting has produced painters like Sundarayya, Tanjavur Kondayya, B. Venkatappa and Keshavayya.[103] Chitrakala Parishat is an organisation in Karnataka dedicated to promoting painting, mainly in the Mysore painting style.

Saree is the traditional dress of women in Karnataka. Women in Kodagu have a distinct style of wearing the saree, different from the rest of Karnataka. Dhoti, known as Panche in Karnataka, is the traditional attire of men. ShirtTrousers and Salwar kameez are widely worn in Urban areas. Mysore Peta is the traditional headgear of southern Karnataka, while the pagadi or pataga (similar to the Rajasthani turban) is preferred in the northern areas of the state.

Rice and Ragi form the staple food in South Karnataka, whereas Jolada rottiSorghum is staple to North Karnataka. Bisi bele bathJolada rottiRagi muddeUppittuBenne DoseMasala Dose and Maddur Vade are some of the popular food items in Karnataka. Among sweets, Mysore PakKaradantu of Gokak and AmingadBelgaavi Kunda and Dharwad pedha are popular. Apart from this, coastal Karnataka and Kodagu have distinctive cuisines of their own. Udupi cuisine of coastal Karnataka is popular all over India.


Religion in Karnataka (2011)[104]
Hinduism   84.00%
Islam   12.92%
Christianity   1.87%
Jainism   0.72%
Buddhism   0.16%
Sikhism   0.05%
Other   0.02%
Not religious   0.27%
Vishnu, Badami cave temple no.3
Mandyada Shri Shiradi Sai Baba Mandir in Mandya

Giant grey stone statue of nude man with vines climbing legs to his arms


Gomateswara (982–983) at Shravanabelagola is an important centre of Jain pilgrimage.

Adi Shankaracharya (788–820) chose Sringeri in Karnataka to establish the first of his four mathas (monastery). Madhvacharya (1238–1317) was the chief proponent of Tattvavada(Philosophy of Reality), popularly known as Dvaita or Dualistic school of Hindu philosophy — one of the three most influential Vedanta philosophies. Madhvacharya was one of the important philosophers during the Bhakti movement. He was a pioneer in many ways, going against standard conventions and norms. According to tradition, Madhvacharya is believed to be the third incarnation of Vayu (Mukhyaprana), after Hanuman and Bhima. The Haridasa devotional movement is considered as one of the turning points in the cultural history of India. Over a span of nearly six centuries, several saints and mystics helped shape the culture, philosophy and art of South India and Karnataka in particular by exerting considerable spiritual influence over the masses and kingdoms that ruled South India.

This movement was ushered in by the Haridasas (literally “servants of Lord Hari”) and took shape in the 13th century – 14th century CE, period, prior to and during the early rule of the Vijayanagara empire. The main objective of this movement was to propagate the Dvaita philosophy of Madhvacharya (Madhva Siddhanta) to the masses through a literary medium known as Dasa Sahitya literature of the servants of the Lord. Purandaradasa is widely recognised as the “Pithamaha” of Carnatic Music for his immense contribution. Ramanujacharya, the leading expounder of Vishishtadvaita, spent many years in Melkote. He came to Karnataka in 1098 AD and lived here until 1122 AD. He first lived in Tondanur and then moved to Melkote where the Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple and a well-organised matha were built. He was patronised by the Hoysala king, Vishnuvardhana.[105]

In the twelfth century, Lingayatism emerged in northern Karnataka as a protest against the rigidity of the prevailing social and caste system. Leading figures of this movement were BasavaAkka Mahadevi and Allama Prabhu, who established the Anubhava Mantapa which was the centre of all religious and philosophical thoughts and discussions pertaining to Ligayats. These three social reformers did so by the literary means of “Vachana Sahitya” which is very famous for its simple, straight forward and easily understandable Kannada language. Lingayatism preached women equality by letting women wear Ishtalinga i.e. Symbol of god around their neck. Basava shunned the sharp hierarchical divisions that existed and sought to remove all distinctions between the hierarchically superior master class and the subordinate, servile class. He also supported inter-caste marriages and Kaayaka Tatva of Basavanna. This was the basis of the Lingayat faith which today counts millions among its followers.[106]

The Jain philosophy and literature have contributed immensely to the religious and cultural landscape of Karnataka. Islam, which had an early presence on the west coast of India as early as the tenth century, gained a foothold in Karnataka with the rise of the Bahamani and Bijapur sultanates that ruled parts of Karnataka.[107] Christianity reached Karnataka in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the Portuguese and St. Francis Xavier in 1545.[108]

Buddhism was popular in Karnataka during the first millennium in places such as Gulbarga and Banavasi. A chance discovery of edicts and several Mauryan relics at Sannati in Gulbarga district in 1986 has proven that the Krishna River basin was once home to both Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism. There are Tibetan refugee camps in Karnataka.


Mysore Dasara is celebrated as the Nada habba (state festival) and this is marked by major festivities at Mysore.[109] Ugadi(Kannada New Year), Makara Sankranti (the harvest festival), Ganesh ChaturthiGowri HabbaRam NavamiNagapanchamiBasava JayanthiDeepavali, and Ramzan are the other major festivals of Karnataka.


Monument with black plaque of inscribed writing


Halmidi inscription (450 CE) is the earliest attested inscription in the Kannada language.


Distribution of languages in Karnataka[58]

  Kannada (66.54%)
  Urdu (10.83%)
  Telugu (5.84%)
  Tamil (3.45%)
  Marathi (3.38%)
  Hindi (3.30%)
  Tulu (2.61%)
  Others (4.05%)

The Kannada language serves as the official language of the state of Karnataka, as the native language of approximately 65% of its population and as one of the classical languages of India.[110][111] Kannada played a crucial role in the creation of Karnataka: linguistic demographics played a major role in defining the new state in 1956. TuluKonkani and Kodavaare other minor native languages that share a long history in the state. Urdu is spoken widely by the Muslim population. Less widely spoken languages include Beary bashe and certain languages such as Sankethi. Some of the regional languages in Karnataka are TuluKodavaKonkani and Beary.[112][113][114]

Kannada features a rich and ancient body of literature including religious and secular genre, covering topics as diverse as Jainism (such as Puranas), Veerashaivism (such as Vachanas), Vaishnavism (such as Haridasa Sahitya) and modern literature. Evidence from edicts during the time of Ashoka (reigned 274–232 BCE) suggest that Buddhist literature influenced the Kannada script and its literature. The Halmidi inscription, the earliest attested full-length inscription in the Kannada language and script, dates from 450 CE, while the earliest available literary work, the Kavirajamarga, has been dated to 850 CE. References made in the Kavirajamarga, however, prove that Kannada literature flourished in the native composition meters such as ChattanaBeddande and Melvadu during earlier centuries. The classic refers to several earlier greats (purvacharyar) of Kannada poetry and prose.[115]

Kuvempu, the renowned Kannada poet and writer who wrote Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate, the state anthem of Karnataka[116] was the first recipient of the “Karnataka Ratna” award, the highest civilian award bestowed by the Government of Karnataka. Contemporary Kannada literature has received considerable acknowledgement in the arena of Indian literature, with eight Kannada writers winning India’s highest literary honour, the Jnanpith award.

Tulu is spoken mainly in the coastal districts of Udupi and Dakshina KannadaTulu Mahabharato, written by Arunabja in the Tigalari script, is the oldest surviving Tulu text.[117] Tigalari script was used by Brahmins to write Sanskrit language. The use of the Kannada script for writing Tulu and non-availability of print in Tigalari script contributed to the marginalisation of Tigalari script. Konkani is mostly spoken in the Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada districts and in parts of Udupi, Konkani use the Kannada script for writing.[118] The Kodavas who mainly reside in the Kodagu district, speak Kodava Takk. Two regional variations of the language exist, the northern Mendale Takka and the southern Kiggaati Takka.[119] Kodava Takk use the Kannada script for writing. English is the medium of education in many schools and widely used for business communication in most private companies.

All of the state’s languages are patronised and promoted by governmental and quasi-governmental bodies. The Kannada Sahitya Parishat and the Kannada Sahitya Akademi are responsible for the promotion of Kannada while the Karnataka Konkani Sahitya Akademi,[120] the Tulu Sahitya Akademi and the Kodava Sahitya Akademi promote their respective languages.


3-storey stone building with taller ivory tower


Indian Institute of Science is one of the premier institutes of India.

As per the 2011 census, Karnataka had a literacy rate of 75.36%, with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females in the state being literate.[7] In 2001, the literacy rate of the state were 67.04%, with 76.29% of males and 57.45% of females being literate.[121] The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India such as the Indian Institute of Science, the Indian Institute of Management, the Indian Institute of Technology Dharwad the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, the National Institute of Technology Karnataka and the National Law School of India University.

In March 2006, Karnataka had 54,529 primary schools with 252,875 teachers and 8.495 million students,[122] and 9498 secondary schools with 92,287 teachers and 1.384 million students.[122] There are three kinds of schools in the state, viz., government-run, private aided (financial aid is provided by the government) and private unaided (no financial aid is provided). The primary languages of instruction in most schools are Kannada and English.

The syllabus taught in the schools is either of the CBSE, the ICSE or the state syllabus (SSLC) defined by the Department of Public Instruction of the Government of Karnataka. However, some schools follow the NIOS syllabus. The state has two sainik schools — in Kodagu Sainik School in Kodagu and in Bijapur Sainik School in Bijapur.

To maximise attendance in schools, the Karnataka Government has launched a midday meal scheme in government and aided schools in which free lunch is provided to the students.[123]

Statewide board examinations are conducted at the end of secondary education. Students who qualify are allowed to pursue a two-year pre-university course, after which they become eligible to pursue under-graduate degrees.


Literacy rates of Karnataka districts[124]

There are 481 degree colleges affiliated with one of the universities in the state, viz. Bangalore UniversityGulbarga UniversityKarnatak UniversityKuvempu UniversityMangalore University and Mysore University.[125] In 1998, the engineering colleges in the state were brought under the newly formed Visvesvaraya Technological Universityheadquartered at Belgaum, whereas the medical colleges are run under the jurisdiction of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. Some of these baccalaureate colleges are accredited with the status of a deemed university. There are 186 engineering, 39 medical and 41 dental colleges in the state.[126] UdupiSringeriGokarna and Melkote are well-known places of Sanskrit and Vedic learning. In 2015 the Central Government decided to establish the first Indian Institute of Technology in Karnataka at Dharwad.[127] Tulu and Konkani[128] languages are taught as an optional subject in the twin districts of South Canara and Udupi.[129]

Manipal Academy Of Higher EducationPES University and Christ University are private universities in Karnataka.

High literacy districts[edit]

Rank District Literacy
1 Dakshina Kannada (South Canara) 88.57%
2 Bangalore Urban 87.67%
3 Udupi 86.24%
4 Uttara Kannada (North Canara) 84.06%
5 Kodagu 82.61%

High literacy taluks[edit]

Rank Taluk Literacy
1 Mangaluru (Dakshina Kannada) 92%
2 Karwar (Uttara Kannada) 90%
3 Udupi (Udupi) 89%
4 Madikeri (Kodagu) 88%
5 Sirsi (Uttara Kannada) 88%


The era of Kannada newspapers started in the year 1843 when Hermann Mögling, a missionary from Basel Mission, published the first Kannada newspaper called Mangalooru Samachara in Mangalore. The first Kannada periodical, Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini was started by Bhashyam Bhashyacharya in Mysore. Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K. N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited and began publishing two newspapers, Deccan Herald and Prajavani. Presently the Times of India and Vijaya Karnataka are the largest-selling English and Kannada newspapers respectively.[130][131] A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in both Kannada and English. UdayavaniKannadaprabhaSamyukta KarnatakaVarthaBharathiSanjevaniEesanjeHosa diganthaKaravali Aleare also some popular dailies published from Karnataka.

Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Chandana is dedicated to Kannada. Prominent Kannada channels include Janasri NewsColors KannadaZee KannadaUdaya TVTV 9Asianet Suvarna and Kasturi TV.

Karnataka occupies a special place in the history of Indian radio. In 1935, Aakashvani, the first private radio station in India, was started by Prof. M.V. Gopalaswamy in Mysore.[132] The popular radio station was taken over by the local municipality and later by All India Radio (AIR) and moved to Bangalore in 1955. Later in 1957, AIR adopted the original name of the radio station, Aakashavani as its own. Some of the popular programs aired by AIR Bangalore included Nisarga Sampada and Sasya Sanjeevini which were programs that taught science through songs, plays and stories. These two programs became so popular that they were translated and broadcast in 18 different languages and the entire series was recorded on cassettes by the Government of Karnataka and distributed to thousands of schools across the state.[132] Karnataka has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Bangalore, Mangalore and Mysore, which has become hugely popular.[133][134]


Photo of young man wearing lavendar shirt and unframed eyeglasses


Anil Kumble, former captain of the Indian Test team and spin legend, is the highest wicket-taker for India in international cricket.

Karnataka’s smallest district, Kodagu, is a major contributor to Indian field hockey, producing numerous players who have represented India at the international level.[135] The annual Kodava Hockey Festival is the largest hockey tournament in the world.[136] Bangalore has hosted a WTA tennis event and, in 1997, it hosted the fourth National Games of India.[137]The Sports Authority of India, the premier sports institute in the country, and the Nike Tennis Academy are also situated in Bangalore. Karnataka has been referred to as the cradle of Indian swimming because of its high standards in comparison to other states.

One of the most popular sports in Karnataka is cricketThe state cricket team has won the Ranji Trophy seven times, second only to Mumbai in terms of success.[138] Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore regularly hosts international matches and is also the home of the National Cricket Academy, which was opened in 2000 to nurture potential international players. Many cricketers have represented India and in one international match held in the 1990s; players from Karnataka composed the majority of the national team.[139][140] The Royal Challengers Bangalore, an Indian Premier League franchise, the Bengaluru Football Club, an Indian Super League franchise, the Bengaluru Yodhas, a Pro Wrestling Leaguefranchise, the Bengaluru Blasters, a Premier Badminton League franchise and the Bengaluru Bulls, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise are based in Bangalore. The Karnataka Premier League is an inter-regional Twenty20 cricket tournament played in the state.

Notable sportsmen from Karnataka include B.S. ChandrasekharAnil KumbleJavagal SrinathRahul DravidVenkatesh PrasadRobin UthappaVinay KumarGundappa VishwanathSyed KirmaniStuart BinnyAshwini PonnappaMahesh BhupathiRohan BopannaPrakash Padukone who won the All England Badminton Championships in 1980 and Pankaj Advani who has won three world titles in cue sports by the age of 20 including the amateur World Snooker Championship in 2003 and the World Billiards Championship in 2005.[141][142]

Bijapur district has produced some of the best known road cyclists in the national circuit. Premalata Sureban was part of the Indian contingent at the Perlis Open ’99 in Malaysia. In recognition of the talent of cyclists in the district, the state government laid down a cycling track at the B.R. Ambedkar Stadium at a cost of ₹ 40 lakh.[143]

Sports like kho khokabaddichinni daandu and goli (marbles) are played mostly in Karnataka’s rural areas.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Photo of olive-winged bird with sky-blue head/vest.


The state bird, Indian roller


Bengal tigers at Bannerghatta National Park near Bangalore

Karnataka has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded forest area of 38,720 km2(14,950 sq mi) which constitutes 20.19% of the total geographical area of the state. These forests support 25% of the elephant and 10% of the tiger population of India. Many regions of Karnataka are as yet unexplored, so new species of flora and fauna are found periodically. The Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot, includes the western region of Karnataka. Two sub-clusters in the Western Ghats, viz. Talacauvery and Kudremukh, both in Karnataka, are on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO.[144] The Bandipur and Nagarahole National Parks, which fall outside these subclusters, were included in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in 1986, a UNESCO designation.[145]The Indian roller and the Indian elephant are recognised as the state bird and animal while sandalwood and the lotus are recognised as the state tree and flower respectively. Karnataka has five national parks: AnshiBandipurBannerghattaKudremukh and Nagarhole.[146] It also has 27 wildlife sanctuaries of which seven are bird sanctuaries.[147]

Wild animals that are found in Karnataka include the elephant, the tiger, the leopard, the gaur, the sambar deer, the chital or spotted deer, the muntjac, the bonnet macaque, the slender loris, the common palm civet, the small Indian civet, the sloth bear, the dhole, the striped hyena and the golden jackal. Some of the birds found here are the great hornbill, the Malabar pied hornbill, the Ceylon frogmouth, herons, ducks, kites, eagles, falconsquailspartridgeslapwingssandpipers, pigeons, doves, parakeets, cuckoos, owls, nightjarsswiftskingfishers, bee-eaters and munias.[146] Some species of trees found in Karnataka are Callophyllum tomentosaCallophyllum wightianumGarcina cambogiaGarcina moreallaAlstonia scholarisFlacourtia montanaArtocarpus hirsutusArtocarpus lacoochaCinnamomum zeylanicumGrewia tilaefoliaSantalum albumShoreataluraEmblica officinalisVitex altissima and Wrightia tinctoria. Wildlife in Karnataka is threatened by poaching, habitat destruction, human-wildlife conflict and pollution.[146]


7-storey domed building with 4 domed corner towers


Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.

By virtue of its varied geography and long history, Karnataka hosts numerous spots of interest for tourists. There is an array of ancient sculptured temples, modern cities, scenic hill ranges, forests and beaches. Karnataka has been ranked as the fourth most popular destination for tourism among the states of India.[148] Karnataka has the second highest number of nationally protected monuments in India, second only to Uttar Pradesh,[149] in addition to 752 monuments protected by the State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Another 25,000 monuments are yet to receive protection.[150][151]

The districts of the Western Ghats and the southern districts of the state have popular eco-tourism locations including KudremukhMadikeri and Agumbe. Karnataka has 25 wildlife sanctuaries and five national parks. Popular among them are Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park and Nagarhole National Park. The ruins of the Vijayanagara Empire at Hampi and the monuments of Pattadakal are on the list of UNESCO‘s World Heritage Sites. The cave temples at Badami and the rock-cut temples at Aihole representing the Badami Chalukyan style of architecture are also popular tourist destinations. The Hoysala temples at Belur and Halebidu, which were built with Chloritic schist (soapstone) are proposed UNESCO World Heritage sites.[152] The Gol Gumbaz and Ibrahim Rauza are famous examples of the Deccan Sultanate style of architecture. The monolith of Gomateshwara Bahubali at Shravanabelagola is the tallest sculpted monolith in the world, attracting tens of thousands of pilgrims during the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[153]

Golden 5-storey Mysore Palace building with 21 domed towers and central spire


Mysore Palace at night, Mysore


Mysore painting depicting Goddess Saraswati

The waterfalls of Karnataka and Kudremukhare considered by some to be among the “1001 Natural Wonders of the World”.[154]Jog Falls is India’s tallest single-tiered waterfall with Gokak FallsUnchalli FallsMagod FallsAbbey Falls and Shivanasamudra Falls among other popular waterfalls.

Several popular beaches dot the coastline, including MurudeshwaraGokarnaMalpeand Karwar. In addition, Karnataka is home to several places of religious importance. Several Hindu temples including the famous Udupi Sri Krishna Matha, the Marikamba Temple at Sirsi, the Kollur Mookambika Temple, the Sri Manjunatha Temple at DharmasthalaKukke Subramanya Temple and Sharadamba Temple at Shringeriattract pilgrims from all over India. Most of the holy sites of Lingayatism, like Kudalasangama and Basavana Bagewadi, are found in northern parts of the state. ShravanabelagolaMudabidri and Karkala are famous for Jain history and monuments. Jainism had a stronghold in Karnataka in the early medieval period with Shravanabelagola as its most important centre. The Shettihalli Rosary Church near Shettihalli, an example of French colonial Gothic architecture, is a rare example of a Christian ruin, is a popular tourist site.

Recently Karnataka has emerged as a center of health care tourism. Karnataka has the highest number of approved health systems and alternative therapies in India. Along with some ISO certified government-owned hospitals, private institutions which provide international-quality services have caused the health care industry to grow by 30% during 2004–05. Hospitals in Karnataka treat around 8,000 health tourists every year.[155]


See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ “Protected Areas of India: State-wise break up of Wildlife Sanctuaries” (PDF)Wildlife Institute of India. Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  2. Jump up^ “Figures at a glance” (PDF)2011 Provisional census data. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  3. Jump up to:a b “Karnataka Budget 2018-19” (PDF)Karnataka Finance DeptArchived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  4. Jump up to:a b “MOSPI Gross State Domestic Product”Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 3 August 2018.
  5. Jump up^ 50th Report of the Commission for Linguistic Minorities in India (PDF). p. 123. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016.
  6. Jump up^ “Sub-national HDI – Area Database”Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  7. Jump up to:a b c “Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)” (PDF) Planning Commission, Government of India. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  8. Jump up^ Shankar, Shiva (7 February 2018). “State flag may be a tricolour with Karnataka emblem on white”The Times of IndiaThe Times Group.
  9. Jump up^ “Poem declared ‘State songThe HinduThe Hindu Group. 11 January 2004.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d Huq, Iteshamul, ed. (2015). “Introduction”. A Handbook of Karnataka (PDF) (Fifth ed.). Karnataka Gazetteer Department. p. 48.
  11. Jump up^ See Lord Macaulay‘s life of Clive and James Talboys Wheeler: Early History of British India, London (1878) p.98. The principal meaning is the western half of this area, but the rulers there controlled the Coromandel Coast as well.
  12. Jump up^ Paddayya, K.; et al. (10 September 2002). “Recent findings on the Acheulian of the Hunsgi and Baichbal valleys, Karnataka, with special reference to the Isampur excavation and its dating”. Current Science83 (5): 641–648.
  13. Jump up^ S. Ranganathan. “THE Golden Heritage of Karnataka”Department of Metallurgy. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Archived from the original on 21 January 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  14. Jump up^ “Trade”The British MuseumArchived from the original on 26 May 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  15. Jump up^ From the Talagunda inscription (Dr. B. L. Rice in Kamath (2001), p. 30.)
  16. Jump up^ Moares (1931), p. 10.
  17. Jump up^ Adiga and Sheik Ali in Adiga (2006), p. 89.
  18. Jump up^ Ramesh (1984), pp. 1–2.
  19. Jump up^ From the Halmidi inscription (Ramesh 1984, pp. 10–11.)
  20. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), p. 10.
  21. Jump up^ The Chalukyas hailed from present-day Karnataka (Keay (2000), p. 168.)
  22. Jump up^ The Chalukyas were native Kannadigas (N. Laxminarayana Rao and Dr. S. C. Nandinath in Kamath (2001), p. 57.)
  23. Jump up^ Altekar (1934), pp. 21–24.
  24. Jump up^ Masica (1991), pp. 45–46.
  25. Jump up^ Balagamve in Mysore territory was an early power centre (Cousens (1926), pp. 10, 105.)
  26. Jump up^ Tailapa II, the founder king was the governor of Tardavadi in modern Bijapur district, under the Rashtrakutas (Kamath (2001), p. 101.).
  27. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), p. 115.
  28. Jump up^ Foekema (2003), p. 9.
  29. Jump up to:a b Sastri (1955), p.164
  30. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 132–134.
  31. Jump up^ Sastri (1955), pp. 358–359, 361.
  32. Jump up^ Foekema (1996), p. 14.
  33. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 122–124.
  34. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 157–160.
  35. Jump up^ Kulke and Rothermund (2004), p. 188.
  36. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 190–191.
  37. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), p. 201.
  38. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), p. 202.
  39. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), p. 207.
  40. Jump up^ Jain, Dhanesh; Cardona, George (2003). Jain, Dhanesh; Cardona, George, eds. The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge language family series. 2. Routledge. p. 757ISBN 0-7007-1130-9.
  41. Jump up^ Pinto, Pius Fidelis (1999). History of Christians in coastal Karnataka, 1500–1763 A.D. Mangalore: Samanvaya Prakashan. p. 124.
  42. Jump up^ A History of India by Burton Stein p.190
  43. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), p. 171.
  44. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 171, 173, 174, 204.
  45. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 231–234.
  46. Jump up^ “Rani Chennamma of Kittur”Archived from the original on 18 April 2017.
  47. Jump up^ Kamath, Suryanath (20 May 2007). “The rising in the south”. The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
  48. Jump up^ Ninan, Prem Paul (1 November 2005). “History in the making”Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
  49. Jump up^ Menon, Parvathi. “Karnataka’s agony”The Frontline, Volume 18 – Issue 17, 18–31 August 2001. Frontline. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
  50. Jump up to:a b Ramachandra T.V. & Kamakshi G. “Bioresource Potential of Karnataka” (PDF)Technical Report No. 109, November 2005. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  51. Jump up^ Agumbe’s receiving the second highest rainfall in India is mentioned by Ghose, Arabinda. “Link Godavari, Krishna & Cauvery”The Central Chronicle, dated 2007-03-28. 2007, Central Chronicle. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
  52. Jump up^ “Karnataka – An Introduction”Official website of the Karnataka legislature. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  53. Jump up to:a b “2 new districts notified in Bangalore”The Times of India, dated 2007-08-06. 6 August 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
  54. Jump up^ “Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011” (PDF)Census of India. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.
  55. Jump up^ “Census Population” (PDF)Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  56. Jump up^ “Karnataka Population Sex Ratio in Karnataka Literacy rate data”Archived from the original on 7 August 2013.
  57. Jump up^ “Karnataka Religion Data – Census 2011”Archivedfrom the original on 7 September 2015.
  58. Jump up to:a b “Language – India, States and Union Territories”(PDF)Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. pp. 12–14, 49.
  59. Jump up^ “Envisaging a healthy growth”The Frontline. The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 March 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  60. Jump up^ “Karnataka bets big on healthcare tourism”The Hindu Business Line, dated 2004-11-23. 2004, The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  61. Jump up^ “Ticking child healthcare time bomb”The Education World. Education World. Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  62. Jump up to:a b “Origin and Growth of Karnataka Legislature”The Government of Karnataka. Government of Karnataka. Archived from the original on 26 May 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  63. Jump up^ Pylee, M. V. 2003. Constitutional government in India. New Delhi: S. Chand & Co, p. 365.
  64. Jump up^ “The Head of the State is called the Governor who is the constitutional head of the state as the President is for the whole of India”, Pylee, M. V. 2003. Constitutional government in India. New Delhi: S. Chand & Co, p. 357.
  65. Jump up^ “Lok Sabha-Introduction”The Indian Parliament. Govt. of India. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  66. Jump up^ “Statistics – Karnataka state”The Forest Department. Government of Karnataka. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  67. Jump up^ “Karnataka Politics – Suspense till 27 January” OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  68. Jump up^ Government not keen on solving Kasaragod dispute. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 24 October 2005. Archivedfrom the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 25 October2007.
  69. Jump up^ “Border row: Government told to find permanent solution”. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 29 September 2006. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
  70. Jump up^ “Border dispute saves NCP the blushes”. The Times of India. 26 September 2006. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  71. Jump up to:a b “Industrial Development & Economic Growth In Karnataka”. Indian Brand Equity Foundation. Archivedfrom the original on 20 December 2016.
  72. Jump up^ “State and district domestic product of Karnataka”(PDF). Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Archived(PDF) from the original on 7 July 2015.
  73. Jump up^ “Indian states by GDP Growth”Statistics TimesArchived from the original on 8 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  74. Jump up^ “Indian states by GDP per capita Growth”Statistics TimesArchived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  75. Jump up^ “Report on employment-unemployment survey” (PDF). Ministry of Labour and Employment. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2015. Retrieved 30 October2014.
  76. Jump up^ “Table 162, Number and Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line”. Reserve Bank of India, Government of India. 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  77. Jump up^ “Karnataka Human Development Report 2005” (PDF)The Planning Commission. Government of India. Archived(PDF) from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 4 June2007.
  78. Jump up to:a b “Karnataka Agricultural Policy 2006” (PDF)Department of Agriculture. Government of Karnataka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  79. Jump up^ “Archived copy”Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018., KREDL tenders 1.2GW of solar PV
  80. Jump up to:a b “IT exports from Karnataka cross Rs50k cr”The Financial Express, dated 2007-05-22. 2007: Indian Express Newspapers (Mumbai) Ltd. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008.
  81. Jump up^ “Karnataka / Bangalore News: State Cabinet approves IT park near Devanahalli airport”. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 29 January 2010. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  82. Jump up^ “India in Business”Ministry of External affairs. Government of India. Archived from the original on 5 August 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  83. Jump up^ “Bangalore tops biocluster list with Rs1,400-cr revenue”The Hindu Business Line, dated 2006-06-08. © 2006, The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  84. Jump up^ Raggi Mudde (17 July 2007). “Floriculture”www.Karnataka.comArchived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  85. Jump up^ Ravi Sharma (8–21 October 2005). “Building on a strong base”The Frontline. Frontline. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  86. Jump up^ Ravi Sharma (19 July – 1 August 2003). “A pioneer’s progress”The Frontline volume 20 issue 15. Frontline. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  87. Jump up^ “State/Union Territory-Wise Number of Branches of Scheduled Commercial Banks and Average Population Per Bank Branch – March 2002” (PDF)Online webpage of the Reserve Bank of India. Archived from the original (PDF)on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  88. Jump up^ “Silk city to come up near B’lore”Deccanherald.comArchived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  89. Jump up^ “Karnataka silk weavers fret over falling profits due to globalisation” 27 June 2009. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  90. Jump up^ “5 airports to be functional soon”Online Webpage of The Deccan Herald, dated 2007-06-05. 2007, The Printers (Mysore) Private Ltd. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  91. Jump up^ “Prime Minister to Dedicate Konkan Railway Line to Nation on 1 May”Press Information Bureau. Government of India. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
  92. Jump up^ GS Prasanna Kumar. “Karnataka and Indian Railways, Colossal wastage of available resources or is it sheer madness of the authorities concerned”Online webpage of OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 11 February 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  93. Jump up^ Feedback Infrastructure Services (May 2012). “Prefeasibility Report on Development of Captive Port at Padubidri” (PDF). Government of Karnataka, Infrastructure Development Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  94. Jump up^ “Brief history”New Mangalore Port TrustArchivedfrom the original on 28 November 2016.
  95. Jump up^ “Foreigners can enter India through five ports on e-visa”The HinduArchived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  96. Jump up^ “Nautica and Norwegian Star cruise through M’luru coast”Deccan HeraldArchived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  97. Jump up^ “Aida Aura arrives in Mangaluru”Deccan ChronicleArchived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  98. Jump up to:a b “About KSRTC”Online webpage of KSRTC. KSRTC. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  99. Jump up^ Chief Editor:H Chittaranjan. 2005. Handbook of Karnataka, Gazetteer Department of the Government of Karnataka, Chapter XIII, pp. 332–337.
  100. Jump up^ H Chittaranjan (chief editor). 2005. Handbook of Karnataka, Gazetteer Department of the Government of Karnataka, Chapter XIII, pp. 350–352.
  101. Jump up^ Karnataka Music as Aesthetic Form/R. Sathyanarayana. New Delhi, Centre for Studies in Civilizations, 2004, xiii, 185 p., ISBN 81-87586-16-8.
  102. Jump up^ Jytosna Kamat. “Purandara Dasa”. Kamats Potpourri. Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 31 December 2006.
  103. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), p. 283.
  104. Jump up^ “Population by religion community – 2011”Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  105. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 150–152
  106. Jump up^ Kamath (2001), pp. 152–154.
  107. Jump up^ Sastri (1955), p. 396.
  108. Jump up^ Sastri (1955), p. 398.
  109. Jump up^ “Dasara fest panel meets Thursday”The Times of India, dated 2003-07-22. Times Internet Limited. 22 July 2003. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  110. Jump up^ “The Karnataka Local Authorities (Official Language) Act, 1981” (PDF)Official website of Government of Karnataka. Government of Karnataka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2007.
  111. Jump up^ “Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages”Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  112. Jump up^ “Karnataka Tulu Sahithya Academy”Archived from the original on 25 November 2015.
  113. Jump up^ “Karnataka Beary Sahithya Academy”Archived from the original on 12 December 2016.
  114. Jump up^ “Karnataka Konkani Sahithya Academy”Archivedfrom the original on 22 December 2015.
  115. Jump up^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp. 12, 17.
  116. Jump up^ “Poem declared `State songOnline webpage of The Hindu. The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  117. Jump up^ Raviprasad Kamila (13 November 2004). “Tulu Academy yet to realise its goal”Online webpage of The Hindu, dated 2004-011-13. Chennai, India: 2004, The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  118. Jump up^ “Archived copy”Archived from the original on 19 February 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  119. Jump up^ K.S. Rajyashree. “Kodava Speech Community: An Ethnolinguistic Study”Online webpage of M. S. Thirumalai. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  120. Jump up^ “Konkan Prabha released”Online webpage of The Deccan Herald, dated 2005-09-16. 2005, The Printers (Mysore) Private Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  121. Jump up^ “Literacy Rate State/UT Wise”National Literacy Mission, IndiaArchived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  122. Jump up to:a b “Number of schools in Karnataka on 31-03-2006”(PDF)Department of Public Instruction. Government of Karnataka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  123. Jump up^ “Mid-day meal scheme extended”The Times of India, dated 2007-05-16. Times Internet Limited. 16 May 2007. Archived from the original on 26 May 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  124. Jump up^ “List of districts of Karnataka”Archived from the original on 25 August 2013.
  125. Jump up^ “Districtwise and Universitywise degree college statistics for 2006–07” (PDF)The Department of Collegiate Education. Government of Karnataka. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  126. Jump up^ Karnataka CET 2011 Brochure (PDF). Sampige Road, Malleshwaram, Bangalore: Karnataka Examinations Authority. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 October 2011.
  127. Jump up^ “Archived copy”Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015. First IIT in Karnataka to Come up in Dharwad
  128. Jump up^ “Konkani as a third optional language in Schools”. 2011. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  129. Jump up^ “Mangalore: Tulu Enters Schools as a Language of Study” Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. 27 March 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  130. Jump up^ Shuma Raha. “Battleground Bangalore”Online Edition of The Telegraph dated 2006-11-19. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  131. Jump up^ “Times Group acquires Vijayanand Printers”Online Edition of The Times of India dated 2006-06-15. Times Internet Limited. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  132. Jump up to:a b Named by Na. Kasturi, a popular Kannada writer Deepa Ganesh (9 March 2006). “Still a hot favourite at 50”Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-03-09. Chennai, India: 2006, The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  133. Jump up^ “Radio Stations in Karnataka, India”Online webpage of Alan G. Davies. Archived from the original on 3 June 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
  134. Jump up^ “Radio has become popular again”Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-01-12. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 12 January 2006. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
  135. Jump up^ “A field day in coorg”The Hindu. Chennai, India. 13 June 2004. Archived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2007Since Coorg (Kodagu) was the cradle of Indian hockey, with over 50 players from the region going on to represent the nation so far, seven of whom were Olympians…
  136. Jump up^ Krishnakumar (13 June 2004). “A field day in coorg”. Chennai, India: The HinduArchived from the original on 22 June 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2007… the festival assumed such monstrous proportions (one year, 350 families took part in the festival) that it found place in the Limca Book of Records. It was recognised as the largest hockey tournament in the world. This has been referred to the Guinness Book of World Records too.
  137. Jump up^ Rao, Roopa (12 June 1997). “Curtains down on Fourth National Games”Indian Express. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  138. Jump up^ “Karnataka seal seventh Ranji Trophy title”Cricinfo. 2 February 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  139. Jump up^ Sujith SomasunderRahul DravidJavagal SrinathSunil JoshiAnil Kumble and Venkatesh Prasad, all from Karnataka played in this match: “ODI no. 1127, Titan Cup – 1st Match India v South Africa 1996/97 season”CricinfoArchivedfrom the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  140. Jump up^ Vijay BharadwajRahul DravidJavagal SrinathSunil JoshiAnil Kumble and Venkatesh Prasad, all from Karnataka played in this match: “Test no. 1462 New Zealand in India Test Series – 1st Test India v New Zealand 1999/00 season”CricinfoArchived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  141. Jump up^ “Faculty”Online Webpage of the Tata Prakash Padukone Badminton Academy. © 2007 TATA Padukone Badminton Academy. Archived from the original on 21 May 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  142. Jump up^ “Pankaj Advani is a phenomenon: Savur”. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 12 July 2005. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  143. Jump up^ “Front Page News: Friday, 16 July 2010”. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 26 May 2009. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  144. Jump up^ “Western Ghats (sub cluster nomination)”Online webpage of UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 1992–2007 UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  145. Jump up^ “Seville 5, Internal Meeting of Expects, Proceedings, Pamplona, Spain, 23–27 October 2000” (PDF)UNESCO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  146. Jump up to:a b c A Walk on the Wild Side, An Information Guide to National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Karnataka, Compiled and Edited by Dr. Nima Manjrekar, Karnataka Forest Department, Wildlife Wing, October 2000
  147. Jump up^ “Archived copy”Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. Wildlife Sanctuaries in India
  148. Jump up^ “Karnataka to turn on tourism charms”Online Edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2002-02-15. The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  149. Jump up^ “Alphabetical list of Monuments”Protected Monuments. Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the originalon 8 August 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
  150. Jump up^ “Plan to conserve heritage monuments, museums”The Hindu. Chennai, India: Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 6 January 2007. 6 January 2007. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
  151. Jump up^ R. Krishna Kumar (17 August 2007). “Mysore Palace beats Taj Mahal in popularity”Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2007-08-17. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  152. Jump up^ “Belur for World Heritage Status”Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2004-07-25. Chennai, India: The Hindu. 25 July 2004. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
  153. Jump up^ Keay (2000), p. 324.
  154. Jump up^ Michael Bright, 1001 Natural Wonders of the World by Barrons Educational Series Inc., published by Quinted Inc., 2005.
  155. Jump up^ “Karnataka bets big on healthcare tourism”Online webpage of the Hindu Business Line, dated 2004-11-23. 2004, The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2007.


  • John Keay, India: A History, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0
  • Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath, Concise history of Karnataka, 2001, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002) OCLC 7796041
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002) ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
  • R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1988, ISBN 81-206-0303-6.
  • K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vātāpi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi. OCLC 13869730OL 3007052MLCCN 84-900575. . OCLC 13869730.
  • Malini Adiga (2006), The Making of Southern Karnataka: Society, Polity and Culture in the early medieval period, AD 400–1030, Orient Longman, Chennai, ISBN 81-250-2912-5
  • Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1934) [1934]. The Rashtrakutas And Their Times; being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during C. 750 A.D. to C. 1000 A.D. Poona: Oriental Book Agency. OCLC 3793499.
  • Masica, Colin P. (1991) [1991]. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29944-6.
  • Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese District. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233.
  • Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, fourth edition, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-32919-1
  • Foekema, Gerard [2003] (2003). Architecture decorated with architecture: Later medieval temples of Karnataka, 1000–1300 AD. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-215-1089-9.

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